IllusionMage

: The Revolutionary 3D Software That Has Helped 6,100 People In 67 Countries Create Stunning 3D Animations From The Comfort Of Their Own Home…

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Have you always wanted to create your own animations or 3D Games?

What if I told you that you can produce animations and modelslike Pixar or Walt Disneyeasily and quickly from the comfort of your home…. with the same software that leading European studios are using.

The good news is theres a sea of change that is sweeping across the animation industry, transforming thousands of lives and home studios and it apowerful softwarethat allows the little guy to make…

Creating stunning 3D animations is a breeze if youve got a multi-million dollar budget, loads of staff and state of the art studio.

Heck, why not throw in a few years studying animation at college for good measure. Up until now, thats exactly what you needed…

Because now theres IllusionMage, an industry-leading 3D modelling & animation suite forcreating cutting-edge 3D animations- just like Pixar and Dreamworks – in your hown homein 2 hours or less!

IllusionMage – The Complete 3D Creation

Software Suite & Video Training Package

Easily The Most Powerful 3D Creation Software On The Planet!

integrated modelling, rendering, animation and real-time open source 3D creation package.

– Produce your own cartoon animated film

– Create real-time interactive 3D content

– Creating and render exceptionally rich & realistic natural environments.

Let your imagination come alivewith the easiest way to create stunning animations!

Over the last decade, this has evolved as anin-house tool for leading European animation studios. This is your chance to get your hands on aprofessional hi-end 3D creation program

With illusionMagesuite & blender video tutorials, you canweave your own web of magic. YouDO NOTneed to attend expensive courses or have any experience to use this. You will be able to produce hollywood 3D computer animations and models like movie studiosquicker and easier than youve ever dreamed of.

This will set a benchmark for 3D animation programs in the market. The ease-of-use coupled with a feature-rich interface makes it a dream come true for animators.

No Technical Skills Required, Just Add Imagination.

Create broadcast quality 3D content, with the simple Point & Click interface. Create your own cartoon series, 3D games, websites and product demos. Animate astoundingly real 3D models with east.No Technical skills required, just add imagination.

The word processor revolutionized the publishing industry and now IllusionMage is revolutionizing the animation world,its time to enter the third dimension.

Go on, see the full range of features below:

Industry-Leading 3D Modelling / Animation / Game Design Software Used By Animation Studios and Home Users Worldwide

Create Broadcast Quality 3D Content, High Quality Modelling, 3D Figure Design and Animation, Rendering, Post-production, Real-time Interactive 3D and Games Creation with Live Playback.

Complete 250+ Pages Of Illustrated Tutorials and 20 Step-by-Step Free Animation Software Video Training. Over 370 Minutes of Video Tutorials Makes It Dead-Simple For Anyone To Get Started…

Can Be Used For Professional Branded Advertisements to High End Animated Game Characters and Environments.

Powerful All-In-One Integrated 3D Creation Software and Advanced Animation System with Full Range of Tools for High End 3D-production

Free Updates For Life. All From the Thriving Open Source Community, This Software is Forever Improving

Works With Multiple File Types – Supports 3D Studio, Lightwave Formats and Many More & Compatible With Windows and Mac.

If You Think Maya or 3D Max is Good,

Let me lay it out for you: this is acomplete solution for high end 3D-production at an unprecedented price.

It has a robust feature setsimilar in scope and depthto other high-end 3D software such as SoftimageXSI, Cinema 4D, 3Ds Max and Maya.

Get the best of both worlds in 1 software – It combines the architectural power of 3D Studios Max and Animation Effects of Maya

These features includeadvanced simulation toolssuch as rigid body dynamics, fluid dynamics, and softbody dynamics, stop motion animation, modifier based modeling tools, powerful character animation tools.

Even better, you can also createdynamic 3D modelsby RTS animation so models can move back-and-forth, float, or rotate. It alsooffers professional CG artists a complete toolset for creatingexceptionally rich and realisticenvironments.

Thanks for offering this Seth. This is a 5-star product! The results of a well lit render at the best resolution settings is truly stunning, verging on the photorealistic.

LearnEXACTLYHow To Create Your First Animated Model With Software & Video Training

IllusionMage & Blender contains the software, a complete 250+ page illustrated digital manual, tutorials, andover 8 hoursof video training, tutorials and examples

LikeToy Story and MadagascarWithin Minutes…

Yes. Thats right.You can create your own cartoon series right at your computer with illusionMage. Produce cartoon animations such asToy Story, Madagascar, Shrekfrom home with step-by-step tutorials…

But more importantly, you too can create professional looking 3D objects, add animation, and use a wide range of 3D effects like professional studioswithoutpaying for expensive software…

3D creation program suite that is suitable for

beginners and experts. In fact, you will be able to

create your first animation model within 53 mins

It can be used for modeling, UV unwrapping, texturing, rigging, skinning, animating, rendering, particle and other simulating, non-linear editing, compositing, and creating interactive 3D applications

As I have already said, this suite isjust as advancedas 3D Max & Maya, however the best way to demonstrate its abilities is throughsome pictures andvideos of real editing work.Take a look at the features and videos below:

an in-depth look of 9 amazing features…

An easy to use interface that does not overlap or block elements

Fully customizable window layout – You can configure

Undo easily at any level – Make changes to your mistakes with one-touch!

Fast loading with minimum system specs. Interface loads up in seconds.

Simple one-click rendering and modelling options.

Open and work on multiple windows and multiple projects.

A powerful inbuild database system with

Plus 300 hours of videos and tutorials included with IllusionMage.

to watch an amazing demo of cartoon character modelling in action!

Ultra-realism 3D models is possible with a full range of object types and functions.

to create any face shape, face type or face emotion you desire.

such as polygon meshes, NURBS surfaces, bezier and B-spline curves, metaballs, vector fonts.

You can also perform functions like:

extrude, bevel, cut, spin, screw, warp, subdivide, noise

Edit the texture, sharpness, shape of

Deform any face in any way you like with tools like

Creating realistic face shapes and models is a breeze with IllusionMage

to see a completed anime cartoon created by one of our users!

Creating cartoons like Pixar and Dreamworks is now within your reach!

Non-linear cartoon animation action editor allows you to edit movements and motion easily.

You can also create blendshapes from existing targets

animated deformers (Lattice, Curve)

Sound synchronisation support for audio playback

The use of timeline to preview your cartoons quickly.

Allows custom and procedural animation effects

to see a car simulation game created and rendered with IllusionMage..

Graphical interface to edit your game landscapes and action without any programming skills

Get the same software that PlayStation uses: Bullet Physics Llibrary. Bullet Detection and Rigid Body Dynamics Library for realistic motion and physics

You can create all types of shapes including: Convex polyhedron, box, sphere, cone, cylinder, capsule and static triangle mesh

makes it easy to program your own crashes and action sequences

You get full support for vehicle dynamics and that includes all spring reactions, stiffness, damping, tyre friction etc

Create realistic lighting with OpenGL

lighting modes that includes transparencies, Animated and reflection-mapped textures

Instantly playback of games & interactive 3D content so you have an instant preview of how your game looks like

to check out a video of an exceptionally rich 3D landscape

You can create extremely realistic and rich landscapes with this software

It is memory efficient and threaded. That means you get fast previews and quick editing of your landscaping elements

Using the preview panel, you can quickly edit and make changes on selected portions without loading the entire landscape

Supports real-time sequencing to edit hours of videos

Supports multiple audio and visual files. You can import all types of graphic files and sources for your landscape

Supports float images as well as regular 32-bits images. It is fully versatile and flexible

to watch an amazing demo of water fluid motion!

Enhanced 3D Render allows for very fast previews with the inbuilt raytracer

This supports oversampling, motion blur, post-production effects, fields, non-square pixels

Tile-based and fully threaded and Renders Layers and passes

You can create Halo effects, lens flares and fog effects easily.

Create realistic edges with edge rendering for toon shading

Seperate panel allows for quick preview in any 3D view

Supports the use of the famous Yafray render engine

Export scripts available for external renderers such as Renderman (RIB), Povray, Virtualight, Indigo

3D Shading allows you to create 3D shapes realistically to create objects, buildings and other life-like items.

Supports shaders like WardIso, Toon, Blinn, Phong, Cook Torr

and Diffuse shaders such as Lambert, Minnaert, Toon, Oren-Nayar, Lambert

Product and mix complex materials easily and quickly with the node editor

With the 3D shading render tool, you can create

. From the basic skins to advanced shading textures (wood, plasma etc)

With tangent shading you can give any object an anisotropic effect (wood textures etc)

It is completely versatile and you can use environment maps to render and shade

amazingly REAL landscapes and scenery.

to watch an amazing animation showcase reel…

3D Rigging allows you to efficiently

Fast bone and skeleton creation to form skeletons for basic 3d model movements

Interactive 3D skinning with fast color tone chooser for human skins

Automatic Skinning that really works (heat equilibrium based)

Forget about elbow twists with B-spline interpolated bones for life-like movements

Make 3d models turn, run, jump, twist, stretch and do any physical activity realistically and life-like!

Feature 9:Realistic Physics & Particles

to see a video that demonstrates the physics of using IllusionMage

The first of its kind advanced Particle system that can be attached to any object – creating real-life particle and gravity motions.

using control methods like curve guides, wind and vortex effects.

Control individual particles with geometry – easy to use point and click system

Create hair strands quickly using static particle system and it supports all particle control methods

Fluid simulator with fully animated inflow, outflow, obstacle and fluid objects. Gravity and viscosity settings can also be animated.

Realtime soft body solver integrated in mesh, lattice, curve and text objects. Supports collision detection and particle field effects like Wind or Vortex

As if that wasnt enough to blow your socks off…

IllusionMage includes over 370+ mins (6 hours!) of20 step by step video tutorialsandlook-over-my-shoulders video training to help youevery step of the way!

What is the use of having a powerful 3D creation suite at your disposalif you dont know how to fully maximize it

So, youll be glad to know that Ive includedfree technical supportin the form of20 step-by-step video training, visual tutorials and guidesthat will greatly assist you in using this software.

Learn To Create Cartoons Easily With Step-By-Step Tutorials …

You will learn the techniques and tricks that hollywood animation studios use to createjaw-dropping and cutting-edge graphicslikeToy Story and Madagascar!

(over 6 hours!) of video training, audio guides as well as a

I also provide tons of guides and self-help manuals (over 200 illustrated pages) covering:

Click Here To Grab Your Copy Now

With these comprehensive video training at your disposal, there areabsolutely no more excusesfor not taking thefirst step in creating your own animations..

Check out more the amazing things that professional users are using Blender for:…

Architectural/Industrial applications:

Allows users to create & deliver photo-realistic animation in convenient, compact files.

Need to create or improve a web site? Make state-of-the-art interactive 3D web publishing easy and fast.

Give characters new, added depth, and great interactivity. Characters can look stunningly real.

This software suite helps recreate the in-store experience in real-time. Combine animated rich environments with 3D product modeling to create a unique online experience.

This software suite allows for objects to do more than just rotate. Viewers can pick it up and interact with it. Powerful, fast, and intuitive to use. This software helps make 3D objects astounding..

To help realize the potential in e-marketing, this software gives you a 3D presence. Businesses use this for opt-in email, beyond the banner advertising, and much more.

: This software will give your presentations the competitive edge. Can be used to enliven PowerPoint, Director, Word. and make compelling interactive 3D websites.

3D CreationSoftware & Training Ever Available

Thats a bold claim, but Im confident its true. Ive seen just about everything out there, and theres nothing like this anywhere else. In fact, Id guess theres nothing even close, because…this is the only 3D creation package that comes with full video training and tutorials that costs over $1995 at workshops

I know this information is exactly what you need to learn how to make create your own animations, or how to produce cutting-edge graphics and games that you thought were impossible. Youve worked hard enough to learn. Youve struggled long enough.Its time for your effort to pay off.

But dont just take our word for it…

Wow this software is incredible. I have owned Maya, 3DMax and PoserPro. I can tell you, this is by FAR, the easiest software to use.

Incredible, unbelievable, awesome..are a few words I can say about IllusionMage. After using 3D modeling software for engineering, I truly believed that 3D animations are a tough task.

But after using IllusionMage, I can say that it is easy to learn and use. With dedication, one can master this art very soon using such an easy-to-use software.

This is an excellent 3D animation program.I highly recommed this software if you are looking to venture in the world of animations. And the current sale price makes it a great deal.

Video Reviews From Our Happy Customers:

Click On Play To Listen To These Testimonials!

IllusionMage Really Is A Killer Product!

Great For Beginners Or Advanced Users

Produced My First Cartoon Animation Under 30 Mins!

Incredible & Versatile Piece Of Software!

Are these users any different than you?No, they are not. They represent professionals, amateurs, beginners and lifelong enthusiasts with the same passion and enthusiasm you bring to the industry.

The only thing they did was toput their doubts aside and give this package a try.

If you, too, can simply put your doubts aside for a short time, you can see for yourself just what its like tolearn and master3D creationfaster than youve ever dreamed possible and let your imagination come alive.

In fact, Im so sure this will pay off for you…thatIllusionMage is going to betheresource you need…that Ill stand behind it with my…

Listen: I wont release a new program unless I canstand behind it with 100% confidence! IllusionMage is no different.

Imso completely confidentthat this program will help you with your animations and make your life easier, that I am shouldering every ounce of risk.

Our 100% No hassle Money Back Guarantee means you get to trial the100% full versionof IllusionMage andNOTjust some cheap trial software for a full 60 days .

If you dont like it you are thenfree to return itnext week, next month or up to 60 days from now . Just let me know why and you can return it for a prompt and courteous100% refund of your purchase price.This means there isliterally No Riskto secure your copy of IllusionMage now…

I showed you the guarantee, so you know Im confident this is the best package youll find anywhere.

Okay, so whats the bottom line then?Thats easy. You probably already know most animation schools would cost you between$5,500 and $8000(plus the cost of travelling, room, meals and incidentals)… and the most personal attention you would get is maybe an hour or two.

And youd still have to buy the relevant 3D software that is being taught. Here are some choices for you…

At this rate, something like my program would have to cost youat least$7000 to $8000.And Im talking conservatively!In fact … Ive not even priced in the free 6+ hours of extensive video tutorials youll be receiving.

The Fortunate Thing Is, ImNOTGoing To Charge You $7,000…

Only$497$297$197$97$67$47!(This is a special launch offer only, were only opening

thisfora limited timebefore the offer closes…)

Thats right. Your investment for the entire course is only $47 (this launch offer will closed anytime soon)We reserve the right to remove this discount at anytime without warning.

This special launch offer will close very soon and you wont be able to get in at this price after that even if you want to.Once more testimonials come rolling in,Im going to raise the priceaccordingly.

First Ill bump it up to$97.00…then to$197.00and more…and itll still be abargainfor what youre getting.So dont waste any time!Take action right now:

Remember, youll only see this special deal right here on this page, so nows the time to jump on this..

This is going to change everything for you.

No more paying for expensive software and no more attending pricey animation schools. No matter where you are in your animation career,this is what you need to leap to the next level of success.

Remember, this special launch offer of just$497$297$197$97$47

will shoot up to $97once we end this offer.

Complete 3D Creation Software Plus 6+ Hours Of Video Training and 200+ Page of Tutorials for just

I can have IllusionMage package on a CD

this will save me a lot of time and headaches.

, I only pay a low investment of just $47. There are no recurring fees, no other charges. So I dont have to worry about my membership ever running out. Plus Ill get FREE updates for life.

In addition, I understand that I will forfeit this

and the time-limited bonuses if I do not purchase it now.

I further understand that on top of all these incredible benefits, I am backed by your

Better than 100% Risk-Free Money Back Guarantee

It is on that basis that I am clicking the secure order link below and grabbing my own copy of theIllusionMageComplete Package this instant!

Free updates + NO monthly payments or hidden fees.

To ensure your information stays secure, IllusionMage payments are backed by McAfee Secure, so you know you can order from us at any time in full confidence!

Want an easy and cost-effective way to create computer animations like hollywood studios?There is only one product in the market that does that,and that is Blender & IllusionMagesuite. Weave your own web of magic today…

P.S.Remember…you have my100% Risk Free Unconditional Money-Back Guarantee. If after 8-weeks of using this simple, yet powerful 3D software and youre not satisfied – Ill refund your money…no questions asked. Actnowandlock in your one time low priceof only$47before its too late!

P.P.S.Frankly,if youd like to work with animation and design, and you dont want to spend an arm and a leg on expensive software, then this might be the most important item youll ever purchase.Click here now and get started in less than 5 minutes

P.P.P.S.Test drive IllusionMageat the launch price of only $47 today while theres still time!

Try IllusionMage Risk-Free For 60 Days Now

[ Remember: Youll get the 100% full version, NOT a trial copy! ]

Order with confidence on 100% secure servers.

Qns: Does this work with my Mac or Windows 7? :

Yes, it is compatible all versions of Windows, from Win 98 to Windows 7 32 and 64 bit. It is not compatible with Macs currently.

Qns: How do I set it up? Is it complicated?

It is very simple to install. It only takes 1 minute to set up and requires no computer knowledge. Weve even provided video tutorials to help you every step of the way.

Qns: Is this some trial software or do I have to pay extra to activate other features?

Absolutely Not! This is a FULL fledged licensed working program. You do NOT have to pay any money to use it.

Qns: Can it work with 3D Max / Lightwave files?

Yes, it supports all major image formats. You can even convert between them.

Qns: I have more than 1 PC. Can I use it on other computers?

Yes, the license allows you to use it on as many PCs as you like.

Free updates + NO monthly payments or hidden fees.Click Here To Order Now

Released Under GNU GPL. Source code available for download.

Click2Sell is an authorized retailer of IllusionMage

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Energy2D

Interactive Heat Transfer Simulations for Everyone

Android/Chrome OS/iOS versions coming soon…

Please accept our thanks and congratulations for your very interesting work which I am sure are having a great positive impact in our society. from Roberto Quevedo, Instituto Volcanolgico de Canarias, INVOLCAN, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

By Carmen Trudell, University of Virginia

Based on computational physics research ([1],[2],[3]), Energy2D is an interactive, visual multiphysics simulation program that models all three modes of heat transferconduction, convection, and radiation, and their coupling with particle dynamics. Energy2D runs very quickly on most computers and eliminates the switches among preprocessors, solvers, and postprocessors typically needed to perform computational fluid dynamics simulations. It allows you to design computational experiments to test a scientific hypothesis or solve an engineering problem without resorting to complex mathematics.

In addition to heat transfer, work is also underway to incorporate other types of energy transformations (e.g., phase changes and chemical reactions throughthe Stefan condition), to support multiple types of fluids (e.g., air and water), and to provide sensor interfaces for creatingmixed-reality applications.

The ultimate goal of Energy2D is a versatilecomputer-aided engineering (CAE)system for exploring and learning science and engineering through virtual experimentation, investigation, and design. Therefore, the capability of creating complex, accurate scientific simulations of natural phenonmena and engineering problems is the most important goal of Energy2D. Realizing that many existing engineering simulation programs are too difficult to use by novices, our main objective is to rethink a CAE system that empowers, rather than frustrating, the majority of users.

An IR image of a heated model house with a ceiling

An IR image of a heated model house without a ceiling

An Energy2D simulation of a heated house with a ceiling

An Energy2D simulation of a heated house without a ceiling

The conduction part of Energy2D ishighly accurate, but the convection and radiation parts are not 100% accurate. Hence, in cases that involve convection and radiation, Energy2D results should be considered as qualitative. The pictures to the right show a comparison of the results of Energy2D simulations with images from infrared (IR) thermography for a simple model house. The thermal patterns predicted by Energy2D roughly match those from an IR camera.

Charles Xie,Interactive Heat Transfer Simulations for Everyone, The Physics Teacher, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp. 237-240, 2012.

The following is a list of published scientific papers that have used Energy2D as a research tool (not just a citation):

Alessandro Massaro, Angelo Galiano, Giacomo Meuli, & Saverio Francesco Massari,Overview and Application of Enabling Technologies Oriented on Energy Routing Monitoring, on Network Installation and on Predictive Maintenance, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 9, No.2, pp 1-20, 2018

Muammar Mansor, Khadouja Harouaka, Matthew S. Gonzales, Jennifer L. Macalady, & Matthew S. Fantle,Transport-Induced Spatial Patterns of Sulfur Isotopes (

S) as Biosignatures, Astrobiology, Volume 18, No. 1, pp 59-72, 2018

Proma Chakraborty,Impact of Furniture on the Energy Consumption of Commercial Buildings, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems, pp 316-319, 2017

E. Rozos, I. Tsoukalas, & C. Makropoulos,Turning Black into Green: Ecosystem Services from Treated Wastewater, Desalination and Water Treatment, Volume 91, October, pp 198-205, 2017

Gu Hai-Rong, Dong Qiang-Zhu, Li Jin-Ping, Liang Feng-Dian, Zhang Fei, Wang Zuo-Jia,Heating Modes and Heat Transfer Process of Asphalt Pavement Hot In-place Recycling(in Chinese), Road Machinery & Construction Mechanization, Volume 34, Issue 11, pp 96-99, 2017

Sadik A. Yildizel,Mechanical and Thermal Behaviors Comparison of Basalt and Glass Fibers Reinforced Concrete with Two Different Fiber Length Distributions, Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 155-159, 2017

Georgia Kaklamani, David Cheneler, Liam M. Grover, Michael J. Adams, Spiros H. Anastasiadis, & James Bowen,Anisotropic Dehydration of Hydrogel Surfaces, Progress in Biomaterials, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp157-164, 2017

M. Sttz, F. Pixner, J. Wagner, N. Reheis, E. Raiser, H. Kestler, & N. Enzinger,Rotary Friction Welding of Molybdenum Components, The 19th Plansee Seminar, 2017

Marie L. de Klijn-Chevalerias, Roel C.G.M. Loonen, A. Zarzycka, Dennis de Witte, M. V. Sarakinioti, & Jan L.M. Hensen,Assisting the Development of Innovative Responsive Facade Elements Using Building Performance Simulation, in M. Turrin, B. Peters, W. OBrien, R. Stouffs, & T. Dogan (Eds.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design, pp. 243-250, 2017

Mahfoud Abderrezek & Mohamed Fathi,Experimental Study of the Dust Effect on Photovoltaic Panels Energy Yield, Solar Energy, Volume 142, pp 308-320, 2017

Dennis de Witte, Marie L. de Klijn-Chevalerias, Roel C.G.M. Loonen, Jan L.M. Hensen, Ulrich Knaack, & Gregor Zimmermann,Convective Concrete: Additive Manufacturing to Facilitate Activation of Thermal Mass, Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, Volume 5, No. 1, 2017

Javier G. Monroy & Javier Gonzalez-Jimenez,Gas Classification in Motion: An Experimental Analysis, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 240, pp 1205-1215, 2017

Tom Rainforth, Tuan Anh Le, Jan-Willem van de Meent, Michael A. Osborne, & Frank Wood,Bayesian Optimization for Probabilistic Programs, 30th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, Barcelona, Spain, 2016

W. Taylor Shoulders, Richard Locke, & Romain M. Gaume,Elastic Airtight Container for the Compaction of Air-Sensitive Materials, Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 87, 063908, 2016

Zachary R. Adam,Temperature Oscillations near Natural Nuclear Reactor Cores and the Potential for Prebiotic Oligomer Synthesis, Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 171-187, 2016

Jiarui Chen, Shuyu Qin, Xinglong Wu, & Paul K Chu,Morphology and Pattern Control of Diphenylalanine Self-Assembly via Evaporative Dewetting, ACS Nano, Volume 10, No. 1, pp 832-838, 2016

Atanas Vasilev,Geothermal Evolution of Gas Hydrate Deposits: Bulgarian Exclusive Economic Zone in the Black Sea, Comptes rendus de lAcadmie bulgare des Sciences, Volume 68, No. 9, pp 1135-1144, 2015

Pedro A. Hernndez, et al.,Magma Emission Rates from Shallow Submarine Eruptions Using Airborne Thermal Imaging, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 154, pp 219-225, November 2014

How many books have recommended it?

The following is a list of books that have recommended Energy2D:Franco Landriscina,Simulation and Learning: A Model-Centered Approach, Springer, 2013Jiyuan Tu, Guan Heng Yeoh, and Chaoqun Liu,Computational Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition: A Practical Approach, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2012What people are saying about it?

The software program Energy2D is used to solve the dynamic Fourier heat transfer equations for the Convective Concrete case. Energy2D is a relatively new program (Xie, 2012) and is not yet widely used as a building performance simulation tool. To gain more confidence in the predictions with Energy2D, an analytical validation study was therefore carried out first, inspired by the approach described in Hensen and Nakhi (1994). Those analytical solutions and the simulation results of the dynamic response to a 20C temperature step change on the surface of a concrete construction with the following properties were compared for this research… the simulation results never divert from the exact solution more than 0.45C and it is therefore considered acceptable to further use this model. Dennis de Witte, Marie L. de Klijn-Chevalerias, Roel C.G.M. Loonen, Jan L.M. Hensen, Ulrich Knaack, & Gregor Zimmermann, Journal of Facade Design and Engineering

Speaking of the thermo-electric analogy being presented in this work, it is worth mentioning the freely downloadable Java app Energy2D, which permits the numerical/interactive solution of a basically unlimited series of simulations concerning heat transfer. As such, this app can also be seen as an almost perfect and very customizable numerical engine for treating electrostatic problems of various assortment. from Stefano Oss & Giuliano Zendri, European Journal of Physics

Thank you for your absolutely great app which helps me a lot for visualizing my lecture in thermodynamics. It is also very nice to see that three platforms are supported and every single one is free to use. That is just awesome and I want to say thank you for all users. I do not know how many messages of this type you are receiving. from Martin Weise, Austria

In gearing up to teach a course called Building Science this semester, I somehow stumbled across your program Energy2D and Energy3D. I was really impressed by how simple and easy these tools were and Im definitely going to integrate them into some portion of my lectures. Prof. Brent Stephens, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA

I am currently involved in renewable energy related research activities and teaching. I have downloaded and demonstrating Energy2D for my heat transfer course. It is really a very useful tool. Dr. Mazharul Islam, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

Today during the lunch break a little simulated comparison fan in the suction and blowing operation collector here about 50×70 cm and fan with 2 meters / second. [The result] is confirmed by the experiences of several users: pressure losses and less volume of air in the blowing operation. (Link to the source)

…what was really interesting, was that when I continued playing with the simulator, sometimes my convection examples would split into two cycling air cells, one above and to the left, one below and to the right, with the hot air blasting right for the cold source, rather than rising. Thats really interesting, because Ive experienced this when using smoke demonstrations in class, and the fact that the simulator can capture that behavior shows how accurate this teaching tool actually is. (Link to the source)

…this free software is basic, yet you can modify properties and all, the desktop download gives better results and the pages have a choice of practical setups to download and use that are very practical (Link to the source)

Created byCharles Xie. © 2010-The Concord Consortium.

The development of this program is funded by the National Science Foundation under grants 0918449 and 1304485. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the materials associated with this program are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

History of Microsoft Flight Simulator

History of Microsoft Flight Simulator

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Microsoft Flight Simulatorbegan as a set of articles on computer graphics, written byBruce Artwickthroughout 1976, about flight simulation using 3-D graphics. When the editor of the magazine told Artwick that subscribers were interested in purchasing such a program, Artwick foundedsubLOGIC Corporationto commercialize his ideas. At first the new company sold flight simulators through mail order, but that changed in January 1979 with the release ofFlight Simulator(FS) for theApple II.1They soon followed this up with versions for other systems and from there it evolved into a long-running series of computer flight simulators.

First generation (Apple II and TRS-80)

Second generation (Tandy Color Computer 3, Apple II, Commodore 64, and Atari 800)

Third generation (Amiga, Atari ST, and Macintosh)

Flight Simulator 2004: A Century of Flight

First generation (Apple II and TRS-80)

After the release of subLOGICsMicrosoft Flight Simulatorfor the IBM PC, subLOGIC backported its improvements to other computers asFlight Simulator II.2This version, like the Microsoft release, did away with wireframe graphics for solid colors, and featured real-world scenery (although limited to a few areas in the United States). It also introduced simulator add-ons, although not in the form it is today, as subLOGIC also included functionality to load additional scenery from floppy disks, thus making it possible for a user to virtually fly in his or her own backyard.

InfoWorldin 1984 praisedFlight Simulator IIfor the Apple as a complicated but exhilarating game … Bruce Artwick has really done it all, and stated that it was superior to Microsofts version.3II Computinglisted it ninth on the magazines list of top Apple II games as of late 1985, based on sales and market-share data,4and it was subLogics best-selling Commodore game as of late 1987.5

In 1984Amiga Corporationasked Artwick to portFlight Simulatorfor its forthcoming computer, but Commodores purchase of Amiga temporarily ended the relationship. SubLOGIC instead finished a Macintosh version, released by Microsoft, then resumed work on the Amiga and Atari ST versions.2

Although still calledFlight Simulator II, the Amiga and Atari ST versions compare favorably withMicrosoft Flight Simulator3.0. Notable features included a windowing system allowing multiple simultaneous 3d views – including exterior views of the aircraft itself – and (on the Amiga and Atari ST) modem play.

Infogave the Amiga version five stars out of five, describing it as the finest incarnation. Praising the superb graphics, the magazine advised to BEGIN your game collection with this one!6

Sometime during 1981-82,Microsoftobtained the license to port the simulator to IBM compatibles PCs. This version was released in November 1982 asMicrosoft Flight Simulator, and featured an improved graphics engine, variable weather and time of day, and a new coordinate system (used by all subsequent versions up to version 5).

Advertisements claimed If flying your IBM PC got any more realistic, youd need a license, and promised a full-color, out-the-window flight display.8Early versions of Microsoft Flight Simulator were used as a test forPC compatibility. If a computer could run MSFS 1.0 andLotus 1-2-3, it was 100% IBM PC-compatible, and if it could not, it was not.9101112131415

Compatibility difficulty included the unusual use of the x86 assembly DIV command, where a DIVIDE BY ZERO command would be issued every time a screen refresh was needed. This technique often required hardware changes to assure compatibility with MSFS 1.0 software.citation needed

There was adogfightmode with theSopwith Cameland crop-dusting mode included.

In 1984, Microsoft released their version 2 for IBM PCs. This version didnt differ too much from MSFS1; the graphics were somewhat improved, as well as a more precise simulation in general had been created. The new simulator expanded the scenery coverage to include a model of the entire United States, although the airports were limited to the same areas as in MSFS1. However, compatibility withsubLOGICScenery Disks was provided, which were released in the following years, gradually covering the whole USA, Hawaii, Japan, and part of Europe.

Many more buildings and additional aircraft. For the first time, users had an option to view the aircraft from the outside. A Cessna Skylane flying overChicagois shown here.

Microsoft Flight Simulator 3improved the flight experience by adding additional aircraft and airports to the simulated area found in MSFS2, as well as improved high-res (EGA) graphics, and other features lifted from the Amiga/ST versions.

The three simulated aircraft were theGates Learjet 25, theCessna Skylane, and theSopwith Camel. Flight Simulator 3 also allowed the user to customize the display; multiple windows, each displaying one of several views, could be positioned and sized on the screen. The supported views included the instrument and control panel, a map view, and various external camera angles.

This version included a program to convert the old series ofsubLOGICScenery Disks into scenery files (known as SCN files), which could then be copied to the FS3 directory, allowing the user to expand the FS world.

Version 4 followed in 1989, and brought several improvements over MSFS3. These included amongst others; improved aircraft models, as well as an upgraded model of the Cessna Skylane, programmable dynamic scenery (non-interactive air and ground traffic on and near airports moving along static prerecorded paths). The basic version of FS4 was available for Macintosh computers in 1991. Like FS3, this version included an upgraded converter for the oldsubLOGICScenery Disks into SCN files.

A large series of add-on products were produced for FS4 between 1989 and 1993. First from Microsoft & the Bruce Artwick Organization (BAO) came the Aircraft and Scenery Designer (ASD) integration module. This allowed FS4 users to quite easily build, on the fly from directly within the program, custom scenery units known as SC1 files which could be used within FS4 and traded with other users (this activity was quite popular in the FS Forum on CompuServe). Also, ASD provided the addition of the Aircraft Designer Module. Again, from directly within the program the user could select one of two basic type aircraft frames (prop or jet) and proceed to parameter customizations ranging over 4 pages of flight envelope details and visual aspects. Finally, ASD provided additional aircraft including a B747 with a custom dash/cockpit (which required running in 640 350 resolution).

Next fromMallard Softwareand BAO came the sound, graphics, and aircraft Upgrade (SGA). This added digital and synth sound capability to FS4 (which used to be only via PC speaker.) Second a variety of high resolution modes became available for specific types of higher end video cards and chipsets, thus supplying running resolutions up to 800 600. As with ASD, the SGA upgrade also came with some additional aircraft designed by BAO, including an Ultra-light.

The final addition was known as the Aircraft Adventure Factory (AAF). AAF consisted of two primary components. First, the Aircraft Factory which was a Windows-based program allowing custom design aircraft shapes to be used within FS4 utilizing a unique, rather easy to use CAD type interface, supported by various sub menu and listing options. Once the shape was created and colors assigned to the various pieces, it could be tied to an existing saved flight model as was designed in the Aircraft Designer module. The end result was a two file unit, creating a new custom aircraft for FS4. Thousands of aircraft were designed by users using this utility and like scenery files, found their way onto the FS Forum at CompuServe (the Mecca for FS4). The Aircraft designed was an independent utility in terms of the flight simulator, and one didnt need to have it installed in order to use the aircraft files.

The other component of AAF was the Adventure module. Using a simple language (much similar to QBASIC), a user could design and compile a script that could be run from within FS4. Many FS4 parameters could be accessed including such things as aircraft position, airspeed, altitude, aircraft flight characteristics, etc. These could then be used to do things like display messages on the screen, play VOC audio files, and even display 256 color VGA images. The end result was that users could create fun adventures to use and share. The Adventure interface is integrated within an upgraded version of the sound driver from the previous SGA upgrade, and thus this driver is needed in order to play adventures. The adventure compiler itself is, however, a separate program. Two other minor utility drivers came shipped with the AAF, one that replaced the transponder digits with the actual framerate, and one that provided correct magnetic deviation within the US scenery map.

Other Add-On products (most published by Mallard Software) included: The Scenery Enhancement Edition (SEE4) which further enhanced SC1 files and allowed for AF objects to be used as static objects within SEE4. Pilots Power Tools (PPT) which greatly eased the management of the many aircraft and scenery files available. Finally, a variety of new primary scenery areas created by MicroScene, including Hawaii (MS-1), Tahiti (MS-2), Grand Canyon (MS-3), and Japan (MS-4). Scenery files produced bysubLOGICcould also be used with FS4, including subLOGICs final massive USA East and West scenery collections.

With its many options and add-ons, yet still relatively tight in program integration and overall ease of use, the FS4 suite of programs presented a type of VR Toolkit for users with a flight simulator slant. While complex in some aspects, FS4 environment building options (including scenery and aircraft design) would provide an unsurpassed access to these activities for average users; an option, which in later versions of FS, was much less available and increasingly complex.

FS5 is the first version of the series to use textures. This allowed FS5 to achieve a much higher degree of realism than the previousflat-shadedsimulators. This also made all add-on scenery and aircraft for the previous versions obsolete, as they would look out of place.

The bundled scenery was expanded (now including parts of Europe). Improvements were made to the included aircraft models, the weather systems realism and artificial intelligence. The coordinate system introduced in FS1 was revamped, and the scenery format was migrated from the old SCN/SC1 to the new and more complex BGL format.

More noticeable improvements included the use of digital audio for sound effects, custom cockpits for each aircraft (previous versions had one cockpit that was slightly modified to fit various aircraft), and better graphics.

It took about a year for add-on developers to get to grips with the new engine, but when they did they were not only able to release scenery but also tools like Flightshop that made it feasible for users to design new objects.

In 1995, Flight Simulator 5.1 was introduced, adding the ability to handle scenery libraries including wide use of satellite imagery, faster performance and a barrage of weather effects: storms, 3D clouds and fog became true-to-life elements in the Flight Simulator world. This edition was also the first version that was released on CD-ROM and the last for DOS. This was released in June 1995.

In the fall of 1995, with the release of the Flightshop program, nearly any aircraft could be built. The French program Airport was also available for free which allowed users to build airports (FS5.1 only had 250 Worldwide) and other designers were doing custom aircraft cockpit panels. This all made for a huge amount of freeware to be released to be downloaded and added to the FS5.1 simulator. Forums such as CompuServe, Avsim, and acted as libraries for uploads and discussion.

In November 1995, Microsoft acquired the Bruce Artwick Organization (BAO), Ltd from Bruce Artwick. Employees were moved to Redmond, WA and development of Microsoft Flight Simulator continued.

As Windows 95 was released, a new version (6.0) was developed for that platform. Although this was more or less just a port from the DOS version (FS5.1), it did feature a vastly improved frame-rate, better haze, and additional aircraft, including theExtra 300aerobatic aircraft. It also featured more 3-D detailing, this could be noticed in many places such as Manhattan, Meigs etc.

Instead of using the version number in the title, Microsoft instead called it Flight Simulator for Windows 95 to advertise the change in operating system. It is often abbreviated as FS95 or FSW95.

This was the first version released after the purchase of BAO by Microsoft, and after having physically relocated development of the BAO development staff to Microsofts primary campus in Redmond, Washington. The BAO team was integrated with other non-BAO Microsoft staff, such as project management, testing, and artwork.

Additional scenery included major airports outside Europe and the US for the first time.

FS98 (6.1) is generally regarded as a service release, offering minor improvements, with a few notable exceptions: The simulator now also featured a helicopter (theBell 206BIII JetRanger), as well as a generally improved interface for adding additional aircraft, sceneries, and sounds. Other new out of the box aircraft included a revisedCessna 182with a photorealistic instrument panel and updated flight model. The primary rationale for updating the 182 was Cessnas return to manufacturing that model in the late 1990s. TheLearjet Model 45business jet was also included, replacing the agingLearjet 35from earlier versions. The Dynamic Scenery models were also vastly improved. One of the most noticeable improvements in this version was the ability to have independent panels and sounds for every aircraft.

A major expansion of the in-box scenery was also included in this release, including approximately 45 detailed cities (many located outside the United States, some of which had been included in separate scenery enhancement packs), as well as an increase in the modeled airports to over 3000 worldwide, compared with the approximately 300 in earlier versions. This major increase in scenery production was attributable partially to inclusion of the content from previous standalone scenery packs, as well as new contributions by MicroScene, a company in San Ramon, California who had developed several scenery expansions released by Microsoft.

This release also included support for the Microsoft Sidewinder Pro Force Feedback joystick, which allowed the player to receive some sensory input from simulated trim forces on the aircraft controls.

This was the first version to take advantage of 3D-graphic cards, through MicrosoftsDirectXtechnology. With such combination of hardware and software, FS98 not only achieved better performance, but also implemented better haze/visibility effects, virtual cockpit views, texture filtering, and sunrise/sunset effects.

By November 1997,Flight Simulator 98had shipped one million units, following its September launch.16

FS2000 (7.0) was released as a major improvement over the previous versions, and was also offered in two versions; one version for normal users, and one pro version with additional aircraft. Although many users had high expectations when this version arrived, many were disappointed when they found out that the simulator demanded high-end hardware; the minimum requirements were only a Pentium 166MHz computer, although 400500MHz computer was deemed necessary to have an even framerate.17However, even on a high-end system, stuttering framerate was a problem, especially when performing sharp turns in graphically dense areas. Also, the visual damage effects introduced in FS5.0 were disabled, and continued to be unavailable in versions after FS2000. While the visual damage effects were still in the game, Microsoft disabled them from the games configuration files. Users can re-enable the damage effects through modifications. FS2000 also introduced computer controlled aircraft in some airports.

This version also introduced 3D elevation, making it possible to adjust the elevation for the scenery grids, thus making most of the previous scenery obsolete (as it didnt support this feature). A GPS was also added, enabling an even more realistic operation of the simulator. FS2000 also upgraded its dynamic scenery, with more detailed models and AI that allowed aircraft to yield to other aircraft to avoid incursions while taxiing.

FS2000 included an improved weather system, which featured precipitation for the first time in the form of either snow or rain, as well as other new features such as the ability to download real-world weather.

New aircraft in FS2000 included the supersonicAerospatiale-BAC Concorde(prominently featured on both editions box covers) and theBoeing 777, which had recently entered service at the time.

An often overlooked, but highly significant milestone in Flight Simulator 2000, was the addition of over 17,000 new airports, for a total exceeding 20,000 worldwide, as well as worldwide navigational aid coverage. This greatly expanded the utility of the product in simulating long international flights as well as instrument-based flight relying on radio navigation aids. Some of these airports, along with additional objects such as radio towers and other hazard structures, were built from publicly available U.S. government databases. Others, particularly the larger commercial airports with detailed apron and taxiway structures, were built from detailed information inJeppesens proprietary database, one of the primary commercial suppliers of worldwide aviation navigation data.

In combination, these new data sources in Flight Simulator allowed the franchise to claim the inclusion of virtually every documented airport and navigational aid in the world, as well as allowing implementation of the new GPS feature. As was the case with FS98, scenery development using these new data sources in FS2000 was outsourced to MicroScene in San Ramon, working with the core development team at Microsoft.

Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000was the last of the Flight Simulator series to support theWindows 95andWindows NT 4.0operating systems.

Autogen allowed the environment throughout the world to be true to its surroundings. A Cessna C172SP Skyhawk above the default Meigs Airport in Chicago.

Main article:Microsoft Flight Simulator 2002

FS2002 (8.0) improved vastly over previous versions. In addition to improved graphics, FS2002 introducedair traffic control(ATC) andartificial intelligence(AI) aircraft enabling users to fly alongside computer controlled aircraft and communicate with airports. An option for a target framerate was added, enabling a cap on the framerate to reduce stutter while performing texture loading and other maintenance tasks. In addition, aircraft feature a 3D virtual cockpit, creating in effect a view of the cockpit from the viewpoint of a real pilot. The external view also featured an inertia effect, inducing an illusion of movement in a realistic physical environment. The simulation runs smoother than Flight Simulator 2000, even on comparable hardware. A free copy ofFighter Ace 2was also included with the software.

Flight Simulator 2004 (9.0): A Century of Flight, also known asFS9orFS2004, was shipped with several historical aircraft such as theWright FlyerFord Tri-Motor, and theDouglas DC-3to commemorate the 100th anniversary of theWright Brothersfirst flight. The program included an improved weather engine, that provided true three-dimensional clouds and true localized weather conditions for the first time.18The engine also allowed users to download weather information from actualweather stations, allowing the simulator to synchronize the weather with the real world. Other enhancements from the previous version included better ATC communications,GPS equipment, interactive virtual cockpits, and more variety in autogen such as barns, street lights, silos, etc.

The versions of this and before do have Meigs Field, in Chicago. This is also the last still used

Featured new aircraft, improved autogen, and the ability to share cockpits via multiplayer. Here, aCessna 172flies nearby ChicagosNortherly Island Park, the site of the formerMeigs Field.

Main article:Microsoft Flight Simulator X

Flight Simulator X(10.0), known asFSX, is the tenth and most recent edition in the Flight Simulator franchise. It features new aircraft, improved multiplayer support, including the ability for two players to fly a single plane, and players to occupy a control tower available in the Deluxe Edition, and improved scenery with higher resolution ground textures.FSXincludes fewer aircraft than FS2004, but incorporates new aircraft such as theAirbus A321Maule OrionBoeing 737-800, andBombardier CRJ700. The expansion pack, namedAcceleration, was released later, which includes new missions, aircraft, and other updates. The Deluxe edition ofFlight Simulator Xincludes the Software Development Kit (SDK), which contains an object placer, allowing the games autogen and full scenery library to be used in missions or add-on scenery. Finally, the ability to operate the control surfaces of aircraft with the mouse was reintroduced after it was removed in FS2002.

Previous versions did not allowgreat circlenavigation at latitudes higher than 60 degrees (North or South), and at around 75-80 degrees North/South it became impossible to fly closer to the poles, whichever compass heading was followed. This problem is solved in FSX. Users may now navigate through any great circle as well as fly across bothArcticandAntarctic. This version also adds the option to have a transparent panel.

FSXis the first of the series to be released exclusively onDVD-ROMdue to space constraints. This is also the first in the series that calls for the preparing process known asactivating. Through the internet or a phone a hardware number is generated, and a corresponding code is then used to lock the DVD to one single computer only. It also requires a significantly more powerful computer to run smoothly, even on low graphical settings. Users have reported that the game is CPU-bound – a powerful processor is generally more helpful in increasing performance than a powerful graphics card.

Meigs Fieldin Chicago was removed following its sudden destruction in 2003,19whileKai Tak Airportin Hong Kong, which had closed in 1998, remained.

Microsoft released their first expansion pack for Flight Simulator in years, called Flight Simulator X: Acceleration, to the US market on October 23, 2007 rated E E10+ for mild violence, and released to the Australian market on November 1, 2007 rated G.[14] Acceleration introduces new features, including multiplayer air racing, new missions, and three all-new aircraft, the F/A-18A Hornet, EH-101 helicopter and the P-51D Mustang. In many product reviews, users complained of multiple bugs in the initial release of the pack. One of the bugs, that occurs only in the Standard Edition, is the Maule Air Orion aircraft used in the mission has missing gauges and other problems, as it is a Deluxe Version-only aircraft.

The new scenery enhancements cover Berlin, Istanbul, Cape Canaveral and the Edwards Air Force Base, providing high accuracy both in the underlying photo texture (60cm/pixel) and in the detail given to the 3D objects.

Flight Simulator X: Acceleration can take advantage of Windows Vista, Windows 7, and DirectX 10 as well.

The expansion pack includes code from both service packs, thus installing them is unnecessary.

On August 17, 2010, Microsoft announced a new flight simulator,Microsoft Flight, designed to replace the Microsoft Flight Simulator series.20New toFlightis Games for Windows Live integration, which means that the GameSpy client will not be used. An add-on market place was implemented as well, offering some additional scenery packs and aircraft asdownloadable content(DLC). The new version was aimed at current flight simulator fans, as well as novice players. However,Flighthas a different internal architecture and operational philosophy, and is not compatible with the previousFlight Simulatorseries.

Some users and critics such as Flying Magazine were disappointed with the product, the main issue being that the product isa game, rather thana simulator,21to attract a casual audience rather than enthusiasts who would want a more realistic experience.22

On July 25, 2012, Microsoft announced it had cancelled further development ofMicrosoft Flight, stating that this was part of the natural ebb and flow of application management. The company stated it will continue to support the community and offer Flight as a free download, but closed down all further development of the product on 26 July 2012.23

In 2009,Lockheed Martinannounced that they had negotiated with Microsoft to purchase the intellectual property and includingsource codeforMicrosoft ESPwhich was the commercial-use version ofFlight Simulator XSP2. In 2010 Lockheed announced that the new product based upon the ESP source code would be calledPrepar3D. Lockheed has hired members of the originalACES Studiosteam to continue development of the product. MostFlight Simulator Xaddons as well as the default FSX aircraft work inPrepar3Dwithout any adjustment sincePrepar3Dis kept backward compatible. The first version was released on 1 November 2010.

On the 9th of July 2014 Dovetail Games announced a licensing agreement with Microsoft to distribute Microsoft Flight Simulator X: Steam Edition24and to develop further products based on Microsofts technology for the entertainment market. Dovetail released Microsoft Flight Simulator X: Steam Edition on 18 December 2014. It is a re-release of FSX Gold Edition, which includes the Deluxe and Acceleration packs and both Service Packs. It includes all standard Steam functionality, and replaces theGameSpymultiplayer system with Steams multiplayer system.25While FSX: Steam Edition remains on sale, Dovetail also released a new flight simulation franchise, Flight Sim World. The company originally planned to bring this game to market in 2015,26, in the end, however, in took until 2017 before the program became available. In April 2018, it was announced that Flight Sim World development would be closed27.

Hockman, Daniel (April 1987).Bruce Artwicks Flight Simulator / Youve Come A Long Way, Baby! / The History of an Epic Program.

Ciraolo, Michael (OctNov Software / A List of Favorites.

Ferrell, Keith (December 1987).The Commodore Games That Live On And On.

Dunnington, Benn; Brown, Mark R.; Malcolm, Tom (JanuaryFebruary 1987).Amiga Gallery.

See Kings Quest image for sample images

Advertisement (December 1982).If flying your IBM PC got any more realistic, youd need a license.

Springer, P. Gregory (1985-06-03).Tandys Magnificent Concession.

Lockwood, Russ (September 1985).Zenith Z-151; choice of U.S. Air Force and Navy.

Alsop, Stewart (31 January 1994).A public Windows pane to make compatibility clearer. InfoWorld. p.102

Dvorak, John C. (12 May 1986).Springtime In Atlanta Beats Fall In Las Vegas. InfoWorld. p.66

Satchell, Stephen (27 January 1986).The Corona ATP Is Faster Than The IBM PC AT, But It Has Flaws. InfoWorld. pp.47, 50

Mace, Scott; Karen Sorensen (5 May 1986).Amiga, Atari Ready PC Emulators. InfoWorld. p.5

Satchell, Stephen (14 January 1985).AT&T 6300 PERSONAL COMPUTER. InfoWorld. pp.49, 5354

Staff (November 20, 1997).Flight Sim Stats.

. Archived fromthe originalon March 4, 2000.

Staff (1 November 1999).Reviews: FS2000 Pro.

. Archived fromthe originalon 13 December 2006

T. Byrl Baker (28 July 2003).Microsoft Flight Simulator 2004: A Century of Flight Review for PC.

Paul Freeman (28 March 2009).Illinois: Central Chicago area: Meigs Field (CGX), Chicago, IL.

Simulation Review: Microsofts Flight a Disappointment

Wilhelm, Alex (26 July 2012).Microsoft Flight Is Dead

Microsoft Flight Development Already Canned. 26 July 2012

Microsoft Flight Simulator returns and one is coming to Steam

FSX Insider FAQs. FSX Insider. 2014-12-18

Dovetail Games – DOVETAIL GAMES LICENSING DEAL WITH MICROSOFT TAKES FLIGHT

Dovetail Games – Flight Sim World: Closure Announcement

Bruce Arthur Artwick, Stuart Moment The parents of subLOGIC Flight Simulator.

The family tree of Microsoft Flight Simulator It describes main developmental lines.

subLOGIC/Microsoft Flight Simulator history movie (2010) Features all versions (185MB zip file)

subLOGIC/Microsoft Flight Simulator history video (2006) Features all versions up to FS2004 (280MB zip file)

Flight Simulator History- Detailed history of early versions of Flight Simulator.

Microsoft Flight Simulator History Web- Evolution of the Microsoft Flight Simulator.

FS4 Webport- Extensive information and support for Microsoft Flight Simulator 4.

Lockheed Martin Prepar3D- Prepar3D home page.

Video games developed in the United Stat

A Golfer

A Golfers Guide for Building A Home Golf Simulator

When I tell people I have a wife and seven daughters, the first response is generally something like, Youre kidding, right? or You poor, poor such and such As youd expect, there are some more colorful versions, but the salient point  the very reason I mention it is that finding a personal sanctuary can be an arduous task. In my house, ample and secluded spaces are in short supply.

Its not that I need any excuse or justification for something like this little slice of Shangri La, but like many of you, I want to be able to play golf year-round, and the climate in Colorado, while fantastic, typically limits the season from March until maybe October.

Enter my passion project for this year: a DIY, indoor golf simulator.

Once I got the okay from she-who-must-be-obeyed (whose patience with all of this golf stuff is exceeded by, well, her patience for me in general) it was time to get down to the nitty gritty and develop a viable plan to bring this thing to life.

For those who are interested in pursuing a similar dream, the following piece details my experience coupled with something that approximates a how-to guide. Here are the things you need to consider.

The phrasegolf simulatorcan mean many things. The scale of the project and all bells and whistles (features) contained therein, is largely driven by price.

If youre good hitting balls into a portable net with shots measured with reasonable accuracy, and the display being handled by an iPad or equivalent device, Optishots Golf In A Box 2 will only set you back $800 or so.

For $2000 you can step-up up a SkyTrack launch monitor. By the time you add a net, mat and annual software subscription, youre going to be around $3000 for everything. Again, this assumes youre good with just a net and willing to forgo having virtual driving ranges and golf courses projected to an impact screen.

At the other end of the spectrum is a no holds barred, fully immersive, custom-built HD simulator room with every option. The entry level for this anything but entry level type setup can start as high as $40k and doesnt tap out until the low six-figures.

As with many things, youll have to pick a spot somewhere between everything you want and everything your budget allows for.

If youre going the DIY route, my assumption is youre trying to save some cash. There are some areas where you can skimp on the design and others where it makes sense to spend a bit more.

The first decision point  and arguably the most important  is what type of launch monitor is going to power your personal utopia. This decision ultimately boils down to how immersive and realistic you want your golf experience to be and whether or not you need to capture reliable data as well. If the goal is to have a little fun knocking the ball around with the guys, precision accuracy and access to robust launch data probably isnt that important. If you plan to spend your off-season optimizing your driver, or gapping your entire bag, youre going to want to spend a bit more on the technology. My thinking is that if youre going to put this much effort into something you plan to enjoy long-term, spend as much as your budget allows for to get a launch monitor that does what you need it to.

For as little as $299,Optishotoffers a budget-friendly simulator in the form of a notebook-sized hitting pad which uses 16, 48-MHz sensors to track each shot. The system comes pre-loaded with 15 courses, though youll need a computer with specific system requirements to run the software.

For less than $800, OptishotsGolf in a Boxis a simple solution for the consumer who isnt picky about launch angles or spin loft but is more focused on entertainment. It has everything required to approximate the golfing experience indoors. The basic kit includes a net, required hardware/software, an infrared hitting pad, foam balls and rubber tees. The website purports a lifelike golfing experience and while it stops short of defininglifelike, the simple fact youre not hitting balls means this system sits on the very fringes of realistic. That said, for less than $800, its significantly more enjoyable (and likely less costly!) than trying to hit flop shots off your carpet onto your couch.

The premise ofSkyTrackis to offer consumers a platform that doesnt skimp on features or accuracy but skips the hefty price tag of more commercial launch monitors. Its billed as a best of both worlds product (launch monitor and simulator) and given its stated accuracy (as compared to Trackman), its hard to argue with the marketing.

For $3000 (launch monitor only is $1995) its about $22K less than the latest Trackman launch monitor, and it includes a hitting mat, Net Return Home Series net, and WGT (World Golf Tour) Play and Improve software subscription. Of all current systems, its arguably the best value on the market. That said, the primary drawback is hitting into a net is less immersive than an HD impact screen, which may be more attractive for those without dedicated space for a simulator or dont see themselves using one often enough to justify a small-scale construction project. However, if youre sold on SkyTraks platform and want something more permanent, for $5300-$5650 (depending on software package) thePlatinum Golf Simulator Studioincludes an impact screen and projector.

While the gamification options arent as plentiful as some other platforms, the accuracy of ball data and head measurement technology are bettered only byForesightsnewest (and pricier)GCQuad. TheGC2is a stereoscopic system which utilizes two high-resolution cameras to capture data at 10,000 frames per second, and the self-leveling accelerometer makes it simple to set up and use on the range. The GC2 was built first as a high-powered, performance measurement device. Admittedly, the visual simulation options felt more like a necessary afterthought than a primary selling point. Fortunately, with its recent software release (FSX 2018), thats changed, and now both the optics (courses in 4K) and comprehensive ball/club data feel like a more natural pairing.

ReconditionedGC2 unitscan be had for less than $5000 ($9000-$10000 with HMT), and while its not the cheapest unit on the market, it offers the best value for players wanting prodigious levels of accuracy along with portability and gaming options.

For my installation, I chose the GC2.

The GCQuad is Foresights crown jewel. It also costs roughly $18,000, but as one would expect it comes with a boatload of additional features and capabilities, most of which are on the data gathering side. Like the GC2, it runs theFSX simulationsoftware, but unlike its elder sibling, it uses four (instead of two) cameras to measure and provide the most accurate ball/club data available on the market. Additionally, a larger viewable outdoor display, enhanced connectivity options (WiFi, Bluetooth), more spacious hitting zone (6x larger than the GC2) and manual target alignment place the GCQuad at the absolute head of the class. In case thats not enough, it also accounts for changes in barometric pressure. An Essential Putting Analysis program ($2500 add-on) is also available which offers the same rich ball/club data for putters. This brings the total for a decked out GCQuad to $20,500 or thereabouts.

At this point, some of you are wondering why I went with Foresight instead ofTrackman. Fair question. Camera-based systems have every advantage when it comes to indoor environments where limited flight is an issue. Conversely, radar-based systems (Trackman) are both more expensive and space intensive. Trackmans flagship model (Trackman 4) starts at $19,000 and if you want to use it indoors, add $6000 for simulator specific software. Because radar-based systems track ball flight, more horizontal and vertical space is required to get accurate readings.  The suggested room dimensions for a Trackman unit are: Depth 25 feet, Height 10+ feet, Ball flight distance -12-15 feet. With either Foresight unit, so long as the player has room to swing, every piece of data can be measured. Screen size, player-screen distance, projector-screen distance and overall room depth are not launch monitor dependent.

One youve selected a launch monitor, its time to start laying out your space.

Its not a particularly helpful statement, but you need as much space as you need. If you plan on swinging driver, anything less than 8 ½ feet of vertical space is going to be too cramped, particularly if youre of at least average height. If you have the luxury of starting from scratch, Id suggest a minimum of 10-foot ceilings, 12-14 feet of width, and enough depth to reliably gather data based on the requirements of your launch monitor. Camera-based systems (Foresight) require less depth, while radar-based systems benefit from longer flight distances. Also, keep in mind that radar units also require additional space between the hitting area and the unit.

The most practical location in my case is my basement. I have 9-foot ceilings (technically 810), 124 of functional width, and plenty of depth to install a projector.

If you dont have enough height, it will limit which clubs you can comfortably use. If width is an issue, it just narrows the hitting area and the proximity to the wall might make you uncomfortable swinging away. If you have limited depth, you might need a short-throw projector which is placed in front of the golfer (and possibly offset) rather than behind.

While Im guessing most would opt for indoor space, but theres no reason a garage, storage area, or someplace else wont work, provided you have enough room.

Again, you have some options here. A 10x10x10 pre-fabricated cage kit with corner fittings and basic netting (no screen) runs close to $300 (not including aluminum poles). For a couple of hundred bucks more, you can get a cage-style kit with an included impact screen. If a cage seems too confining,The Net Returnhas a package including a screen, frame and wing-shaped polyester side netting for $2500.

Regardless of the direction you choose, the goal is to find a place, and a means to safely hang an impact screen while making sure you dont get any return fire. As such, make sure the frame sits at least 12 from any wall. It can be as temporary or permanent as you want it to be. A common method for a free-standing frame is to use 1 electrical conduit and various fittings to create either an entire hitting cage or just a screen support.

If you go this route,A1Tarpscan likely supply all the required parts for around $85. That said, I opted for a more permanent installation, largely because I have a buddy who builds houses for a living and my wife was out of town for the weekend.

To construct the frame, we used 1 5/8 strut channel and cut it to length using a Sawzall. Because the trusses for the main floor run the same direction as the top portion of the strut channel, I was able to use 2.5 wood screws with 1.25 washers to attach this section of strut channel.

If the trusses ran the other direction, there would still be sufficient attachment points regardless if the trusses were 16 or 20 on center. The strut channel is beefy, and some recommend cutting it into two, 6-foot pieces, which can make it easier to install. Because my space allows for the channel to be affixed directly to the truss, we decided to install a single 12-foot piece. We placed the 2.5 wood screws every 1.5-2 and natural disasters notwithstanding, it isnt going anywhere.

I bought two post bases to anchor the strut channel to the concrete but only used one (on the open side). I used two 5/8 X 1 bolts with a washer and nut to join the strut channel with the post base.  On the side adjacent to the basement wall, we were able to anchor the strut channel through the baseboard and into a plate that runs below the floating floor. To secure the two vertical pieces with the horizontal one, we used two 90, 4-bolt L- brackets.

Other considerations: Youll need aSawzallto cut the strut channel and a masonry drill bit for concrete.

If your simulator is for personal use, theres no reason to spend additional money for a commercial quality screen. I went with the middle of the roadPreferredoption fromCarls Place. A new 9×12 screen with finished edges and grommets runs about $550. If youre not on a strict timeline, Carls has a limited and revolving stock of blemished screens available at steep discounts. I got mine for $275, and after several weeks of searching, I still havent found the blemish.

To install the screen, secure one eyehook (1.25) into strut channel specific square nuts and secure each eyehook with a square washer to match the diameter of the strut channel. Shoot for every 12 across the top as a starting point. The hardware cost for hooks, washers, and nuts was $27.

Use 6 ball bungee cords (pack of 50 for $20 at Home Depot) to secure the screen to the frame on three sides. The bottom should have enough extra material to form a little ramp to collect balls.

At this point, Id suggest hitting balls into the net from 10-12 feet with several clubs as youll likely need to adjust the screen tension. The goal is to have about 12 of give. If the screen gets too tight, it will be less like a glove and a more like a trampoline, particularly with higher speed clubs.

After getting the screen situated, it was time to install the projector. As I stated before, if you have limited depth, a short-throw projector may be your best option and if you go this route, make sure you spend a couple of extra bucks to get one with excellent keystoning capabilities (adjustments which allow it to project an image which appears face on even though the projector is offset).

If you go with a curved screen, an extra wide screen, or intend on using this space to stream Netflix (home theater), your only limitations are space and budget. A decent 4K, 3D ready projector such as theEpson 5040UBruns $2500, but 4K projectors in this price range likely wont have enough native brightness (lumens) to function in a room with even minimal natural light. To get 4500-5000 lumens in a quality 4K projector, plan on dropping at least 10K and thats if you find last years model on clearance. Otherwise, plan to spend $12000-$15000.

In general, Id be wary of any projector in the $500-$700 range, particularly because most lack the lumens necessary to project a sufficiently bright image in a room with any amount of ambient light. In a typical basement, Id advise nothing less than 3000 lumens, and if you can get in the 4000-5000 range, its well worth it.  I ultimately decided on thePanasonic PT-VZ580, which retails for $1400, but can often be found on sale for $200 less. I opted against the more expensive 4K laser version largely due to cost $3500), though it would be nice not to worry about ongoing costs like replacement bulbs and filters.

Projector installation depth depends on the size of the screen (diagonal measurement) and how far the golfer will stand from the screen at address. If vertical space is an issue, as it was for me, be sure to use a low-profile mount (I went with theChief RSMA-345 $170) to keep the projector as close to the ceiling as possible. Golfer height (Im 61) can also determine where to place the projector to avoid casting a shadow on the screen. Projector manuals have a number of charts to help you figure this out, but expect a little bit of trial and error; aka make sure your drywall repair skills are up to par.

After two attempts (the provided tables suggested an installed projector range of 13-15) we got it in a position where I could stand 11 ft from the screen without casting a shadow and still hit a full 56 wedge without plugging holes in my ceiling.

Projectors have a number of internal settings which allow you to manipulate the image to fit your screen. If you have perfectionist tendencies, this might challenge your patience. My advice get it to a workable place and see what you do or dont notice over the first couple weeks.

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Simulation software, such asForesights FSX 2018, requires a computer with some decent horsepower and unless youve recently upgraded to a gaming specific desktop or laptop, chances are youll need to purchase something new. When reviewing suggested software specs, err on the side of too much RAM and the beefiest graphics card you can afford. The dedicated graphics card processes and displays images, including 3D graphics, while RAM provides access to files and short-term storage. Essentially, these two components allow for a smooth 4K simulation experience without glitchy graphics.

I ended up with the NVidia GeForce 1050Ti card but will likely replace it with 1080 once bitcoin fades to the periphery of the market. RAM is easy enough to upgrade post-purchase, but unless you have a plan to do so, start with at least 16 GB.

For a mat, I chose theCountry Club Elite(5X5) by Real Feel Golf Mats. Its a bit pricey ($449 at Costco), but this was again one place where I was comfortable spending a little bit more. Also, I was able to remove a section of carpet, so the mat sat directly on concrete to prevent any sliding or slippage. If thats not an option, it may be necessary to frame in the hitting mat on some surfaces. That said, quality artificial turf, regardless of the brand, is like modern patio furniture   its uncomfortably expensive. I wanted realistic turf interaction, and if anything, this mat is overly penal on fat shots. Its not quite Velcro, but theres zero sensation of the club skipping or sliding into impact to give a false sensation of clean contact. Additionally, a square (44 or 55) mat can be rotated often to help maximize longevity.

Creating some type of border to trim out the strut channel frame not only makes the finished product look cleaner, but its also an imperative safety feature. I purchased three rubber garage mats from Home Depot ($11 each) and cut them into 4 strips. From there I applied two beads of Liquid Nails uber-strong adhesive, and Im certain its only a matter of time until I see how well this material absorbs errant shots.

Because I didnt have additional vertical space, I used 12×12 acoustic foam pads (36 qty for $49 from Wal-Mart) and 3M double sided sticky tape to form a 3×12 buffer for any skied shots or flop shops with a little too much flop.

The last step was to hang blackout curtains and rods ($150 from Bed, Bath and Beyond) on either side of the screen to both finish the aesthetic and catch errant shots, though there are heavier fabrics which can do this more effectively. Because Im right-handed, should the dreaded S&ak make an appearance, I added some extra padding (thin memory foam) behind the curtain on the right.

But first, lets recap. While the entire project took just under a month to complete, I essentially turned a 16-20 hour project into a several week exercise in reminding myself why my wife is reticent to turn me loose on any home renovation project without additional adult supervision.

Once you get started, theres an insatiable desire to get to the point where you can hit a real golf ball and see its flight on the screen. To that end, should I attempt something similar again, I would have everything needed to install (at least) the frame/impact screen and projector at the same time. Id absolutely suggest bribing a co-worker, neighbor or golfing buddy with sundry food and beverages to assist with this and so long as you avoid major mistakes, it can be done reasonably in 4-6 hours.

Also, never underestimate the ability of mediocre golfers to hit incredibly poor shots. Case in point prior to installing the ceiling protection my 71-year old father, whose swing is steeper than the north face of Half Dome, skied a tee shot leaving a perfectly round hole just inches from the horizontal section of strut channel.

As with any project, measure twice and cut once. In particular, take time to calculate an appropriate projector depth and dont be afraid to remount it if necessary. Most projectors will have charts to give you a basic ballpark measurement, but Foresight had several installation experts who walked me through projector features and recommendations and double-checked all of my math. Fortunately, no derivatives were required.

Also, if you are going to frame in the hitting mat or remove carpet, wait a couple of weeks before doing so as its a lot easier to shift the mat 6 than it is any of the other components of the system.

Bear in mind, nearly 80% of that figure went towards a premium commercial launch monitor, and I also had to purchase a new computer to run the needed software. Prices on refurbished GC2 units are unlikely to drop substantially in the near future, but so long as consumers continue the recent trend toward golf gamification, expect the market to create more options in the $2000-$5000 range similar to SkyTrak. A hyper-realistic in-home golf simulator is no doubt a luxury item, but its not necessarily the financial reach it once was.

Chris is a self-diagnosed equipment and golf junkie, and hes proud of it. When hes not coaching the local high school and middle school golf teams, hes probably on the range or trying to keep up with his wife and seven beautiful daughters. Chris is based out of Fort Collins, CO and his neighbors believe long brown boxes are simply part of his porch decor. Isnt it funny? The truth just sounds different.

I am building one in a new house, so hard to decide which one works the best? Golfzon has a tilting platform and different rough and bunker surfaces. It is also very expensive, +$75,000. It also needs alot of room, @24 in length. The courses are free though. The Quad, requires less space, a little cheaper, but you must purchase extra courses. The are other companies outside the USA, which makes it very difficult to see, test, etc.. Luckily I will not be installing for a couple of years, and hopefully, new and better products will be developed? Hope this blog subject stays current with the latest sims.. One that does it all, consistently, acurrately, at a resonable cost, in a resonable space?

It sounds like you have an amazing wife (or, as you like to refer to her asshe-who-must-be-obeyed)

If I had ceiling height, Id be comparing pictures with you, but with 8 ceilings in the basement, and no crane to lift house, (while I pour taller concrete walls), the dream of me having an indoor simulator is just that a dream. Maybe I should budget for building a backyard shed that measures 15 x 15 with 12 ceilings ?!?

So many words not enough pics or videos showing the process

Wish I had built the basement of my house with the appropriate ceiling height

Great article. Ive been waiting for this. Good to know you can get a decent practice sim set up without breaking the bank.

Great article. I dont have quite your budget, so I went with a still great option at a much lower price.

I built my home simulator late last summer. I went with the SkyTrak w/Game Improvement Pkg for $1750 on sale, Rukket Haack Golf Net for $129, a used commercial grade 55 hitting mat (Grade A) for $200 off eBay. I used my old laptop and used it for displaying the shot data. I set mine up in my garage. I leave the net up full-time and move the mat in/out of position, if needed. This is a very workable and relatively affordable solution for $2079 in total.

The SkyTrak is exceptional, giving you very realistic distances, spin, carry, roll, smash factor, launch angle, ball speed, clubhead speed and more!

My friends were skeptical, so we set-up 150 and 190 yard Par-3 contests. They all chose their on-course clubs for the simulator and were spot on! I use my mostly for realistic practice and to work out flaws in my swing. Really, really happy with the accuracy.

**I got my SkyTrak on sale during a Fathers Day special and used a new customer discount from , to get my price to $1750, its currently $2250 (with no sales, or 10% off with new customer coupon @ $2025).

Should have super ultra premium category and talk about Full Swing simultors. We have 7 at my shop, we have added the Ion camera which does a good job with showing accurate curve of the golf ball. Putting is nice as we have about 8 feet as the ball crosses the two laser grids. Lots of fun. But spin is not a true measure so if you hit it high, it ads a lot of spin, if you hit it low it shows very little spin. Not the most accurate but far more fun than the GCQuad for actually playing a golf course. We also have the GC2 with HMT for Driver fittings and the playing software is not quite up to snuff in my opinion.

Which model Full Swing? Im lookking into S2 for my home

Ours our quite old, back when they only made one model, it would be like the pro series today. We have updated software and hardware multiple times. Putting is always tough but once you get the hang of it these are far more fun than gc2/quad/trackman simulators to play golf on.

A good summary of simulators here but I think if youre looking at the lower end budget wise I highly recommend the R Motion simulator made by the same company that makes the Skytrak It retails for $299 several of my students have them and it is quite good and doesnt break the bank 😉

If I didnt live in SoCal, where we can play all year, I would build one of these. I even still want one!

Chris, very good info. Creative and resourceful. Will this always be posted? Or can I get reprints. We work with Golfzon for the high end simulators. For people on a tighter budget, youre solution is helpful. Connect with me if youre ever in Chicago.

My local heated driving range charge $ 400 for unlimited access and balls for all winter season. It means 10 seasons is $ 4000.

In regards to that, no indoor simulation is worth it budget wise.

The great thing about choice is that people get to choose. If all someone wants is to bang balls into a net, there are a ton of low cost options of which a membership to some sort of indoor facility is likely one. I actually have a friend who hits balls into an old mattress in his garage. That said, unless your indoor range has access to high quality commercial launch monitors, you wont have the benefit of that data. So again, it comes down to what features an individual wants. Whether something is worth it is a circular discussion which always ends up in the same place.

Not getting in the car and driving somewhere every day in the dead of winter. Not hauling clubs around. Having your own food and beverages at your fingertips. Not dealing with other possible idiots beside you. Should I go on? It could very well be worth it.

Any high tech recommendations for the much overlooked putting game? Interesting is the rather inexpensive PuttMetrix ( There may be others.

Cant do much better than a gc2. To really finish off the sim experience you really need to play live golf with others. The best software currently for that is perfect golf and the gc2. Foresight doesnt officially support using 3rd party software but it works really well. You can get into a game nightly pretty much regardless of time zone. They use a discord server to setup games and play. Its a ton of fun to play 2 vs 2 skins scrambles. The online tour events are fun too with stats like proximity, strokes gained, etc. The Golf Club has a tour that works with the GC2 also but at this point the stats seem better on PG to me and the courses play more accurate since most are built using actual course slopes and contours from Lidar data. Enjoy your new setup!

It will be much cheaper when it comes out on XBox

Almost Golf balls $20, small mat $25, netting $30and the rest use your imagination PRICELESS!

I mean thats great and very suitable, if you dont want to know if your game is improving or not.

Improving!? Youre joking right? Golfers scrores have not improved in the last 50 years inspite of all the technology, agronomy and biomechanical research.good luck with the simulators.

I went with the Sky Trak route. Spent around $5000 for everything. Its not the most beautiful sim set up but it works for me and I can play anytime, practice anytime. What stood the most of my game this season after practicing all winter long was my short game. It sharpened my 100 yards and below shot. I am seeing a more closer to the pin on the first putt from shots from 100 and below.

Thanks fir this info. Ive been thinking about

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