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Is it legal to build and drive your own car in the US? – Quora

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Here in Oklahoma, you can handbuild anything, and take it for inspection. The kind of title you get is for a shopbuilt. Here is some of the history on it:

In Oklahoma, hot rod culture has been strong since the first cars rolled into the territory. There is a strong yet quiet yep, we can do that attitude in the state, because it used to be a place where your only help was yourself and your neighbor in the days of the land rush and city-like ranches (some of the ranches were larger than a few entire countries). Okies tend to improvise—not as well as, say, Aussies or Kiwis, but we do all right. Hot rods are naturals, then.

Way back then it was a common practice to simply abandon a vehicle once youd gotten your moneys worth out of it, knowing that somebody would want it for parts. There was even a TV commercial that featured the concept: an out-of-luck car at the side of the road with a note saying If you can fix it you can have it, on the windshield.

The result of this was a lot of mismatched parts and hot rodding, and no clear kind of make to put on a title. So they used shopbuilt.

In Oklahoma, shopbuilt is also the cheapest for insurance rates, so hilariously, a custom built V-12 supercar would be in the same base insurance rate as a mud-bogger made from twenty different Jeeps.

All you have to do then is pass an inspection, and for that I will share this true story: a pal of mine helped a buddy build a roadster shopbuilt. It had no roof, no doors, and a pane of flat safety glass for a windshield. When it came to the wipers category during the inspection, the guy pulled a rag out of his pocket and wiped it across the glass. The inspector said, Okay, and checked it off as good.

(I have a Bugatti Type 35 replica (no doors or roof) and a 66 Cobra replica (no roof, but weirdly, tiny wipers. Both are shopbuilts)

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Related QuestionsMore Answers Below

How hard is it to build my own street legal car from scratch?

Is it legal to assemble your own car and drive it on the streets?

Is it legal to make my own car in India and drive it on streets too?

Is it legal to paint your own car in California?

Is it legal to create your own self driving car and drive it on major US roads?

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Yes, building your own car is definitely legal. Getting it street legal may be challenging in some states, but most have some form of kit car classification that will allow you to circumvent crash testing.

The other answers cover street legal kit cars, but that is only a requirement if you wish to drive on public roads.

If you only intend to drive on private property (your own land, private race tracks, etc), then its perfectly legal without any certification, registration or license from the government. There are requirements for driving without a license on private property like the property has to be fenced in.

Many private racetracks have their own requirements such as rollbars or specific seatbelts.

But the gist of it is that without touching public roads, you can pretty much build and drive whatever you want.

These handmade vehicles or trailers must go through a special inspection to be deemed road worthy

Yep, thats totally legal; look to kit cars. The most challenging part, though, is to get it road legal: American laws for street-legal vehicles are way more severe than European laws for example; never a Radical SR8 or a Caparo T1 will ever be credited as road-legal in the US.

The finished vehicle has to pass whatever state emissions and safety regulations are applicable, though.

There used to be, and probably still are companies that sell kits for people to build their own cars.

I spent several years as a teenager helping my boyfriend build a car in his parents drive way, an Aztec.

This is a picture which is as close as I remember it, but we built it in the late 1960s

Is it legal to drive a right hand car in US?

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Can I work at a car factory, build my own car and drive it home?

Is it legal to drive someone elses car in the US?

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Still have a question? Ask your own!

How hard is it to build my own street legal car from scratch?

Is it legal to assemble your own car and drive it on the streets?

Is it legal to make my own car in India and drive it on streets too?

Is it legal to paint your own car in California?

Is it legal to create your own self driving car and drive it on major US roads?

Is it legal to drive a right hand car in US?

Is it legal to own a grenade in the US?

Can I work at a car factory, build my own car and drive it home?

Is it legal to drive someone elses car in the US?

Can many disparate people own one car legally?

Build your own car from SCRATCH?!

Im not talking about kit cars… I mean start with a pile of steel and an idea and go from there.

Im almost done with mine, but Ive been wondering how many others here on this forum are out there building from scratch?

ec43709-09-2004, 12:54 AMdude, thats freakin awesome!!! you wanna build me one too?

But seriously… did you custom design all the components like transmission and engine as well, or did you buy those whole?sgraber09-09-2004, 04:25 PMdude, thats freakin awesome!!! you wanna build me one too?

But seriously… did you custom design all the components like transmission and engine as well, or did you buy those whole?

My current engine/transaxle is 4AGE out of an MR2, but in reality the cars engine bay is completely open to any FWD drivetrain. (Try to think of some good ones, itll fit. 🙂 ) The only real issue is adapting the shifter mechanism. But thats pretty straight forward too.

Did you visit my site? I have hundreds of photos, some videos and a construction diary dating back to 2002.mospeed109-09-2004, 05:12 PMhow do you go about making it street legal

would you register it as a mr2?lamborghinirocks09-09-2004, 05:13 PMthats awesome, i bet almost everyone here has thought about building their own car, but youre actually doing it!!! :thumbsup:sgraber09-09-2004, 07:25 PMRegistering — I did a writeup on this subject about a year ago that you are welcome to read. Here ( — Basically it will be registered the same way as a dune-buggy!:screwy: A specially constructed vehicle. The emissions will be tested to the year of the engine. After the car is finished it is towed to the DMV office and a level 3 inspection is performed by a police officer. Upon passing the inspection, a VIN is stamped onto the frame. Paperwork is then taken into the DMV and an application for title and registration is submitted, fees are paid and hopefully I go away with 10 day plates and title. Then its off to the emissions station for the sniff and hopefully again, a pass… back to the dmv for the final plates and tags.

Insurance is up to your carrier. It is something I am still looking into. My last car was a kit car and my agent allowed me to add a rider to my homeowners coverage… I never wrecked it, so I cant validate if that was wise or not. :cwm27:

Every state is different tho, so your mileage may vary (YMMV).

Starting to build your own car from scratch is not difficult, its FINISHING thats proving to be hard! :lol2:FireBball97209-09-2004, 08:07 PMthats amazing! something everyone wants to do! good luck with getting it approved by the police and DMV and whatnot. :thumbsup:sgraber09-13-2004, 10:52 AMthats amazing! something everyone wants to do! good luck with getting it approved by the police and DMV and whatnot. :thumbsup:

Thanks! – I get the feeling that the registration process will sort itself out pretty smoothly. I have kept detailed records of everything.

I spent the weekend working on the drivers side bodywork and I have it very very close to finished. By next weekend I should be ready to transpose all the shapes from the drivers side to the passenger side. Thats going to be a REAL PITA! :banghead:falco109-15-2004, 10:37 AMGreat job man I will be starting my own some day

I am doing my elana body and the mc12 at this time and the scrab gtr

will be starting a murc kit next mounth .

tube chassis are already in the works will show when i get them done

We are useing a cosworth engine in a mid engine setup

and painless wireing and custome built interior .

I have been :banghead: for sometime you know it cost money to do these things and dont have a lot but I am always working on it

wow nice job againRex Orr09-26-2004, 07:07 PMThat is a nice peice of work. Will you be molding it when you get the design done? Rexsgraber09-26-2004, 11:46 PMThat is a nice peice of work. Will you be molding it when you get the design done? Rex

Thanks Rex, I checked out your website and you are doing some really neat stuff with the hotrods.

My car is very unlike your typical hotrod. I am aiming for low weight, low c/g. No frills. More like a Lotus Elise… or you could even make an argument that it is like a 4 wheel sport-bike with seats and a windshield. :iceslolan Where its just you and the machine. A basic driving interface and not much else. When I finished the car (pre-body) I put it on the scales and found out that it weighs less than 1,200Lbs! Thats a light car.

And to answer your question Rex, yes, I am planning on making molds but I havent decided how-where to sell it yet.

Grabermuddymike200309-27-2004, 01:20 AMhow many hours do you think you have put into it? I am planning to build one later this fall…….i have gotten a lot of ideas just by lookin at ur website…i am almost done designing the car how i want it to look, but is there a cheep program to do this on the computer? cuz im havin a little trouble designing the frame……. and how much do you think you would sell the molds for if you did?sgraber09-27-2004, 12:47 PMhow many hours do you think you have put into it? I am planning to build one later this fall…….i have gotten a lot of ideas just by lookin at ur website…i am almost done designing the car how i want it to look, but is there a cheep program to do this on the computer? cuz im havin a little trouble designing the frame……. and how much do you think you would sell the molds for if you did?

You can design your own frame. But you must understand how the forces will be transmitted through the chassis and how to optimize your suspension geometry for the goals you set for the car. IMHO Suspension design is the 1 most difficult part of designing the car. Making a good chassis is actually much more simple. Its a matter of providing attachment for your suspension at the correct locations front and rear, providing room for the passengers, space for the engine and all ancilliary components and then making it stiff enough to allow the suspension to do its work and not fall apart. There are a number of great books on the subject. I wish I could list them all for you here and now, but I am headed out to a meeting. Ill get back here later with a good reading list.

FYI – I spent a lot of time building models of my frame designs out of Balsa wood sticks and wood glue. It really helps to get a feel for how effective your designs are.

I dont plan on selling the molds, but I will hopefully sell the bodies and either kits or plans for the chassis. I dont have any prior experience in this field, but I would venture to guess that a body kit, (that would be just the fiberglass for the body and mounting the body) will be in the 3-5K range. But dont hold me to that price because I just dont know. :disappoin

In any case, this will NOT be an expensive car to build. It will be much less than most cars in its performance bracket.sgraber09-28-2004, 11:30 AMI just realized that I didnt answer your question! Sorry bout that.

I and just passing the 2 year mark. I expect to spend another 6 months on the body. Then its registration and drive time! Drive to the track, thrash on everyone for a while and drive it home. Street/Track car. 🙂

BTW – Here is a shot of my current state of progress:

a small piccy of the rear (lotsa work still needed here) Yes, thats a flat bottom and a diffuser in the works…

Now that the weather is cooling down it will be much easier to motivate into the garage!muddymike200309-28-2004, 12:58 PMthat car…. look sweet as candy 😀 lol it kind of reminds me of corvettes! Suspension will be the hardest part, i know.. i want to have the car mainly be a everyday driver with a trip to the track every once in a while. do you know the best suspension setup for this offhand? on the frame did you use mdf or just hard board, and will you take the hard board out when its done so it will be lighter yet? ur car must fly at only 1200 lbs!! just…watch out for any strong winds….sgraber09-28-2004, 02:36 PMthat car…. look sweet as candy 😀 lol it kind of reminds me of corvettes! Suspension will be the hardest part, i know.. i want to have the car mainly be a everyday driver with a trip to the track every once in a while. do you know the best suspension setup for this offhand? on the frame did you use mdf or just hard board, and will you take the hard board out when its done so it will be lighter yet? ur car must fly at only 1200 lbs!! just…watch out for any strong winds….

The body (as you see it) is only temporary. It is what is called a Plug or a Buck. Wood, putty, foam, and more is sculpted into what is to all appearances a finished car. With a show car finish. But its only purpose is to have a mold created over top of it. Once the mold is pulled the body that I worked so hard to create will be destroyed when I remove it from the car. But the mold (which is a female impression of the car) will be used to lay-up thin layers of fiberglass (or carbon fiber) which will be pulled out of the mold. This creates the shell of the car which is then mounted back onto the frame to create the final car. The nice part about having molds is that I will be able to make as many bodies as I need.

before I started on the body the car had been driven (up to about 60Mph at midnight) through my neighborhood, please dont tell my wife! and the road surface was smooth. I dont know yet how it will handle the bumps and potholes of a regular road. I suspect that it will be a stiff ride and since the car has no top, no heater and no radio (you can add your own when you build your car thanks, but I dont want it) its not reeeally a daily-driver but I will try it and let you know how it goes. I suspect that the thrill of blasting around in a lightweight mini supercar will be nice though. :iceslolan I plan on driving it to work and back regularly. You dont really care about those luxury items when you hop onto a sport-bike do you?

Remember – quickness through lightness.muddymike200309-28-2004, 05:16 PMthats wut i thought, but i wasnt sure, thank ya! ive built fiberglass sound systems and leave the frame in there so that it could stand the vibration so it doesnt crack but this is different and wasnt sure…

Im not planning on putting luxury stuff in it, unless i make it so that i can take it out fast and easy and only have that stuff for shows 😀

that car is going to look and be fast as hell when its all done!!! u got skillsgraber09-29-2004, 10:55 AMThought you guys might like to see the balance point on the car. I am lifting the front end with two fingers. Once the driver gets in , the center of gravity moves directly below the drivers seat.

JoonTae10-02-2004, 07:31 AMSick dude! Are you gonna keep it a one piece body or cut it for sectioned body panels?sgraber10-04-2004, 03:22 PMItll be built in at least 5 seperate panels. Although a one-piece would certainly be easier… But engine access would be difficult.

GraberJoonTae10-04-2004, 05:50 PMI second the mutly panels. Its just better. Looks beautiful.jcsaleen10-06-2004, 04:14 PMBravo.

I like people who do work them selves. I give you alot of credit for that. Hope it comes out well.

Btw hello joontae havent seen u here often.JoonTae10-06-2004, 08:36 PMYeah I sometimes go out of the street racing forum lol. I get bored every so often and check out other forums. I check here cause they have cool micro cars from Europe in this forum. Im cathin up in post numbers lol.sgraber11-18-2004, 01:05 PMHi Guys. A quick update. I have totally revamped the look of my website. In addition I am almost finished with the rough plug building and expect that I will be pulling molds of the shape in early January! Its been over 2 years to get to this point.

Here is a photo of the almost finished passenger side. Just need one or 2 more coats of filler and a final sanding. It is within 1/4 accurate to the Drivers side. That was hard to do!

Coltion12-09-2004, 04:28 PM-With the front revamped and the new idea to the rear, the car is really coming together swell.

-sgraber12-11-2004, 11:00 AM-With the front revamped and the new idea to the rear, the car is really coming together swell.

Thanks, I thought that I would be ready to primer the car and start final sand-downs this weekend, but as I continue to refine the shape I keep seeing ways to improve it. I am working on the tail-lights and the headlights the entire weekend. I had a GREAT idea for the tail lights and how they integrate into the bodywork and am really excited about implementing it. Stay tuned to my website for more updates. :grinyes:sgraber12-13-2004, 01:28 PMJust a quick update to let you know that I have uploaded some new videos on my website shot this morning. You can watch them here:

Here are some thumbnails showing the most recent progress on the car.

I managed to recruit two local brothers, James and Jason, to help me with the bodywork since my back is going out intermittently. They have been an unbelievable find. Hard working, talented guys, and they observe things very similar to me so its easy to talk about something that needs to be done and just let them do it! Is that cool or what?!Cryo boy12-15-2004, 08:36 PMYou my friend are the most patient man the I have ever had the pleasure of observing… bravo, bravosgraber12-17-2004, 06:32 PMBelieve it or not, guys that build experimantal aircraft are even MORE so! 😀 I knew a guy that spent 10 years building an airplane in his basement. One day he decided that it was time to take it outside. One small problem. the wing he had built didnt fit up the stairs! Being a creative person he simply dug a hole beside the house, knocked the basment wall out and took the wing out the side of the house!

And I actually thought about building my car in my backyard… but then I measured the width of my gate and decided that it was a baaaad idea! LOL82KnightRider12-19-2004, 02:46 AMI was curious and clicked Other Cars catagory and couldnt help but notice this thread.Thats an awsome ride,but does the hood open or is the engine going in the rear?sgraber12-23-2004, 02:04 PMI was curious and clicked Other Cars catagory and couldnt help but notice this thread.Thats an awsome ride,but does the hood open or is the engine going in the rear?

Both the front and the rear bodywork will clamshell open. Like the Koenigsegg.

The engine is mid-mounted behind the driver but in front of the rear wheels. Where it should be in a proper sports car. :lol2: :grinyes:sgraber01-03-2005, 07:07 PMHeres a quick update showing the rear of the car. Its still missing the diffuser and the exhaust in this image.

psychorallyfreak01-19-2005, 08:42 PMAbsolutely amazing.

I had daydreamed a time or two about building a rear-engined buggy, simply by looking at the powerpack of an old Saab 900.

Because the engine sits on top of the tranny, it would be immensely easy (IMHO) to remove if needed.

What made you think of using the Toyota drivetrain?sgraber01-20-2005, 09:54 AMAbsolutely amazing.

I had daydreamed a time or two about building a rear-engined buggy, simply by looking at the powerpack of an old Saab 900.

Because the engine sits on top of the tranny, it would be immensely easy (IMHO) to remove if needed.

What made you think of using the Toyota drivetrain?

IMHO the Saab drivetrain is ideal for a Middy. I say go for it!

The Toyota drivetrain that I used is out of an MR2 which is already mid-engine. The reason I used this package is because the shifter mechanism was already solved for mid-engine position. The MR2 engine is actually the Corolla FWD engine, but with a bit different transmission configuration. Now that I know how Toyota did theirs, I think it would be very easy to adapt ANY FWD drivetrain into a mid-engine car. For my part I have decided to offer the car as a kit and already have people buying and planning to use an Integra B18, as well as another plans a GNX with Audi5000 transaxle, as well as another with a ZX12 or R1 bike engine… Oh man, do I have some plans! :DSeademon02-26-2005, 07:51 PMThat car is awsome!! A mate and i are looking to build something simlar. You mentioned there were some good books on chassis and suspension design, are there any that you would specifically reccomend?

-Andrewsgraber02-28-2005, 09:06 AMThat car is awsome!! A mate and i are looking to build something simlar. You mentioned there were some good books on chassis and suspension design, are there any that you would specifically reccomend?

Here is a list of books that I have found mention of over the years.

Steves List of Recommended Reading for Car Builders (

I havent read nearly any of these books, but there you have them!

GraberSeademon02-28-2005, 09:36 PMThanx for the list, im sure it will be of great help. When we have something substantial to show im sure you will be the first to see it :), your work is a great inspiration to me.Ghetto-z03-01-2005, 11:48 AMWhat tools did you use, i just finished laying the foundation to extend my garage so i can start a project of somesort. i have built a few go carts from scratch and i really have wanted to step it up a notch, maybe a bigger go kart with a Vtwin motor, 6speed tranny and a suspension for now, but down the road I would LOVE to design and Build a sports car.

I like the tube frame idea, did you a hydraulic pipe bender, or did you weld together pre bought mandrel bends? what did you use for the welding, MIG? TIG?

wow, i would LOVE to pick your brain about suspension setups! how did you finally decide to go with a gas strut A arm suspension (that is what your using right?)

one last question if you dont mind, what is your budget thus far,

PS your my idol :thumbsup:sgraber03-01-2005, 01:52 PMWhat tools did you use, i just finished laying the foundation to extend my garage so i can start a project of somesort. i have built a few go carts from scratch and i really have wanted to step it up a notch, maybe a bigger go kart with a Vtwin motor, 6speed tranny and a suspension for now, but down the road I would LOVE to design and Build a sports car.

I like the tube frame idea, did you a hydraulic pipe bender, or did you weld together pre bought mandrel bends? what did you use for the welding, MIG? TIG?

wow, i would LOVE to pick your brain about suspension setups! how did you finally decide to go with a gas strut A arm suspension (that is what your using right?)

one last question if you dont mind, what is your budget thus far,

Hey, lets see if I can answer these questions quick. I have a big deadline here at the office.

I used 1x1x .063 (16ga) rhs steel almost exlusively. Very little round. The windshield and rollbar were both bent up at a friends house, but could be done by a friendly muffler shop just as easily.

Very simple tools really. An angle grinder with a cutoff blade and a bunch of sanding flap discs, a sawzall, a bunch of clamps of various sizes, a big burly vise, your basic toolbox of pliers, screwdrivers etc, and of course a half decent MIG welder with gas and a lot of practice welding.

I am not dead ceratin that my suspension design is the best possible solution. I have actually designed the entire front cradle to be removable so that I can build other suspension designs on the table and bolt them into place without rebuilding the entire car. Reasons I chose motorcycle shocks and pullrods with bellcranks. Cost, cool factor, rising rate and readily available and tuneable completely adjustable dampers.

Cost? Donor car – Free (Sold most of it for about $800 profit) A pile of steel, some stuff off of ebay, seats, pedals, windshield, etc… – Total project costs are way WAY under 5,000. But I still have to do the bodywork and that alone will be in the 10s of thousands.

You MUST realize that I have spent over 2 years finding solutions that would result in the lowest cost possible with the highest possible performance and lowest weight. Most people wont or cant go to these lengths to lower costs. :grinno: :screwy:Ghetto-z03-01-2005, 05:09 PMthak you, i appreciate the help, btw you dont want to adopt a 17 yo kid do you… i dont eat much and i can sleep in the garage!sgraber03-01-2005, 05:24 PMthak you, i appreciate the help, btw you dont want to adopt a 17 yo kid do you… i dont eat much and i can sleep in the garage!

LOL! Youre welcome. I believe that information wants to be free.

No adoptions, sorry. I have my hands full already. Besides, my dog would eat you.

:eek7:sgraber01-16-2006, 12:10 PMJust thought I should post a quick update. I am almost finished with the bodywork phase of my car and will be pulling molds within the month.

I decided to add doors and an optional hard top for the next version. Here are some recent photos and some renderings of where the bodywork will hinge.

I hope you like my progress! Its been a long process, but I am totally commited to making this car come to life, while at the same time keeping the cost incredibly low.

G-man42201-16-2006, 12:17 PMThat thing is going to look great! red looks good. what type of engine are you planning to put in it?sgraber01-16-2006, 02:37 PMI am currently using a 1.6L 4AGE. My next one will use the 2.2L Supercharged Ecotec like this:

12499466 Ecotec 2.0L Supercharged Production Engine

This supercharged 4 cylinder Crate Engine (RPO LSJ) features the following:

Bore is 86.00 mm and Stroke 86.00 mm with 9.5:1 compression ratio

205 Horsepower @ 5600 RPM and 200 lb-ft @ 4000 RPM torque

This engine powers the Saturn ION Redline

I also have considered VW 1.8T or VR6, the Honda B16 and B18 and the K20, the Dodge SRT4, Subaru EJ20, the list is really, really long! And they all would fit! :Dsupervisor188601-17-2006, 08:42 PMMan, People like You built the USA. You make proud.

The only thing is that your choice of the engine here seems nice (the numbers are pretty good and its light), but not a v8? Even if you dont want a v8 why not at least a 4.3 vortec-a six- maybe some turbo and you will be making lotsa hp staying pretty light.sgraber01-17-2006, 10:44 PMMan, People like You built the USA. You make proud.

The only thing is that your choice of the engine here seems nice (the numbers are pretty good and its light), but not a v8? Even if you dont want a v8 why not at least a 4.3 vortec-a six- maybe some turbo and you will be making lotsa hp staying pretty light.

Youre right a V8 would be awesome. And the Northstar will fit just fine. Also any of the v-6s would fit no problem either. The key about my car, and its one that if you know about the Elise you might understand, is that the ultra-light weight will give INCREDIBLE performance out of smaller engines. This car weighs only 1,400Lbs when completed. And without bodywork and it interior weighs only 1,126Lbs! With a V8 and all that torque you would have a very very hard time keeping the tires from spinning all the time. Seriously. I think that 250HP and 200Lb/ft torque is a power level that will blow away almost every single production car in the world.

Ive had so much interest in the car that I am starting to put together all the items required to make a kit for it. So if you want to put a V8 in it, I can get you started on that path. Realize that I dont have anything to sell just yet, but if you sign up on my website I will keep you informed when I get closer to production.sgraber04-09-2006, 11:57 AMHeres an update for you. Ive finished working on the plug and am now laying up the molds. Ive written some new diary entries explaining what the process is and how a am doing it.

sgraber04-09-2006, 12:04 PMBTW – This is what the plug looked like before I started laying up the production molds over top of it.

Looks pretty cool huh? Kinda like a skunkworks stealth fighter! :evillol: You can right-click on the image below and make desktop wallpaper out of it.

GreyGoose00604-25-2006, 05:00 PMThis is all just AMAZING…

all i can say is WOW, and for 5,000!!!

looks like a hot-rod solstice, on steroids.

supervisor, a V8 would be awesome, but you would probly need AWD to handle the torque.

theres an idea, a Mid-engined, V8 powered, AWD, Custom built, racer, all for under 10,000, and under 2,000 Lbs.

SWEET!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!NewyorkKopter05-25-2006, 06:19 PMwow thats awesome. I was just wondering, how much is the car going to cost you from start to finish?mmcleo1105-30-2006, 05:05 AMWOW, man. I am REALLY impressed. I can see that a LOT of time, effort and $$ has gone into your car. Nice choice on the 4AGE engine, there is also the 4AGZE supercharged version and also a DOHC 5 valve per cylinder with quad throttle bodies version of this motor that would bolt straight up!! Both engines make over 160Hp from a 1.6L!!

I should also mention the ECOTEC motor that was listed on a previous page is actually a 2L motor if it has a 86mm bore and 86mm stroke. It would still be a awesome setup!!

I am about to begin constructing my own vehicle as well. I bought a wreck on a Autobacs Garaiya from Japan and plan to swap over the good bits into a custom built all alloy frame, coil over suspension, rose jointed suspension arms and some very well developed brakes 😉

I also follow the light weight = great car philosophy. I am aiming for 800Kg(1760Lbs) from my car as our local laws require that engine capacity is directly related to minimum weight of the vehicle. My donor car was also rear engine, 6 speed manual RWD from the factory so I got a big bonus there 😉

I have an SR20VET engine to be fitted, with standard form. My final goal is extracting close to 800Hp from the engine with performance to shame anything this side of a Bugatti Quad-turbo W16 Veyron!

Anyway, I just wanted to say hi and let you know that I def appreciate your work. It has given me some great ideas to incorporate into my draft design.

Thanks again.sgraber06-13-2006, 07:42 PMmmcleo, if you need any help with anything just let me know. I am not a professional, but I do have a little bit of experience now.

This little car would rocknroll with so many different engines. Thats why I built it to accept almost any FWD drivetrain, plus big-bore bike engines. :screwy::grinyes::naughty:

Building a chassis from scratch using my proven cost-saving methods such as shopping for used items on ebay, buying steel from a salvage yard, purchasing the donor car at an insurance auction for next to nothing and ABOVE ALL doing all the work yourself would cost less than $5,000 total. (including tools!) But the problem is that people are lazy. Well thats not a problem really. Just replace labor with $. And creativity with $. And patience with $. The cost can easily go into the 10s of thousands if you had someone design and build the car for you. What kind of sacrifices are YOU willing to make? :2cents::nono:

The real cost that cant be avoided is the bodywork. I am going to have to sell bodies and kits just to pay the bill! Mould making is not for the weak or meek.NewyorkKopter06-16-2006, 09:20 AMoh, so how much would it be if I were to hire someone to make me a custom tube chassis that can handle 800 hp with 800 ft.lbs of torque? Also how much would the bodywork have cost if you hired someone to make it for you?sgraber06-16-2006, 11:08 AMNewyorkKopter, There are tons of places that can fabricate a chassis to support the Hp/Tq figures you are quoting. Many, many lambo replica chassis are already capable of that and you can just order one and be done.

Your bodywork question is too open-ended to be able to answer it. Are u providing a 3d design that is ready to be cncd? a couple of sketches? do you know the dimensions and all of the specifics for the detail work? I guess what I am trying to say is this: When you build it yourself, you can afford to spend as much time as you want making changes and tweaking things and you will get the product as you envision it. If you hire someone or some company to make it for you, then you either give them exact and specific details on what you want in the form of cad drawings, or you constantly make changes to their work. If every hour of someones labor is going to cost you $45, then how many hours can you afford before you say NO MAS! … It might be completely open ended! Just depends on what you want and how many compromises you are willing to make?

Hard material costs for making the mold are over $10KNewyorkKopter06-16-2006, 01:33 PMoh, point taken, but Id be able to supply them with a 3d model of the car exactly how I would want it to be…then how much would it be?sgraber06-16-2006, 03:48 PMoh, point taken, but Id be able to supply them with a 3d model of the car exactly how I would want it to be…then how much would it be?

Remember, I built my own car. I have no experience with companies that fabricate this stuff. But just for shits and giggles check out the car 9DP1) built by Dennis over at . I think he spent over 30K having the moulds made for his project. He supplied a company with 3D files. I dont know if his cost included getting the first car out of the molds, or if that was more.NewyorkKopter06-17-2006, 07:35 AMoh, thanks. that body looks like its carbon fiber :naughty: So how much is your car going to cost you from start to finish?kevinthenerd06-20-2006, 06:53 PMThanks, I really appreciate that.

Youre right a V8 would be awesome. And the Northstar will fit just fine. Also any of the v-6s would fit no problem either. The key about my car, and its one that if you know about the Elise you might und

Cars

Its time to get over your fanboy emotions and notice some other fish in the sea. Who knows, you may fall in love with the enemy.

Red is one of the more popular choices of car color. A recent survey showed that red is also the color most likely to be defecated on by birds. Or maybe not. Is your car a poop target? Does the color of your car really make a difference or are other factors involved?

Its time for the fun stuff. Lets have a look at the awesome mods and power-adders thatll make your car a terror on wheels. Add some horsepower and have fun doing it!

Superchargers, turbochargers and nitrous oxide systems are all well-known mods used in cars today but have you ever thought about combining them? Maybe you should. See why this is a fantastic idea.

This article is dedicated not to the hard core hypermiler, but rather to the everyday Prius driver that wants better fuel economy from their Toyota Prius.

Few variables have more impact on your vehicles performance than the type of fuel you put into the tank. As the owner of a high-performance car, consider the benefits of ethanol and other biofuels.

The Nissan Cube is an oddly endearing compact hatchback whose strange shape and cartoonish looks only add to its appeal. Trust me, you will get noticed when you drive this car.

The DSG transmission is a very popular gearbox, but many dont realise it comes in a number of flavours.

Given all of todays modern technology, were getting even closer to the concept of flying cars coming onto our highways and byways.

A review of the 2014 Chevrolet Volt from an owners point of view. Styling, comfort, operation and operating costs are all reviewed.

A Toyota Prius Hybrid review after 16 months of ownership. Both pros and cons are discussed.

You may not have $100,000 to drop on a car, but a great luxury car can still be yours for under $40K. Just watch the options, they add up very quickly.

The use of ethanol-based fuel in your vehicle can provide an array of benefits for your engine, your wallet, and the environment.

Powershift automatic transmissions are growing in popularity, but they can be a pain to diagnose when they go wrong. Read on for some of the more common faults.

When youre serious about tuning your hot rod, the factory fuel delivery algorithm isnt going to cut it anymore. Learn how to achieve the most stable and flexible fueling model for your power-adders that will put gasoline on tap, for when you need it most! OPEN LOOP MODE will get er done.

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How To Build Septic Tank Systems

for systems other than for the average home – jump To:

septic systems for churches and theaters

septic systems for waterfront lots – tight sites

septic systems for small shops – offices

septic systems for larger rural homes

septic systems for commercial wineries – car washes – kennels etc

of hiring a septic designer and excavator, but

you that these jobs are without value. Beaspect of homesteading, if not handled with cold reason and great care, could ruin Thanksgiving dinner and many restful nights sleep. How to build septic tank systems? Its all here.

Why not do it yourself ?Doinganythingyourself can be heroic or crazy depending on the outcome. In more than 25 years spent designing site layouts and septic systems in the scenic countryside of beautiful Washington State, I have seen more than one home-site ruined forever by sloppy excavation, poor water well placement and the dozens of other pitfalls awaiting an eager baron or baroness heading up the country with a heart full of dreams.

Homeownerscansave money and prove to their friends that they have mastered this aspect of house construction. However, be warned that a few down days with a rented backhoe can quickly eat up any anticipated saving by doing-it-yourself. Remember also that digging up a power line and darkening your block cannot only embarrass you but it could cost you more in repairs than your entire project budget.

The skills of an experienced septic designer or excavator increase in value withsmaller sitesand inpoor soil conditions. If you know in your heart that you lack these skills, dont risk your peace-of-mind.

1. Thesite evaluationis step one:Get a scale map of your property if you dont have one.The scale drawing belowis from an application for a septic tank system that was drawn by a professional septic designer and submitted to the local health department. The site, classified as a difficult one, is for a small lot in a rural subdivision with a community water system (tank in distance). At least a water well does not have to be worked into the layout.

The closest neighbors house can be seen in the photo to the left.The dirt dug from the two test holes can be seen at the back of the lot at the edge of the farm field above and on either side of the green power transformer. The site is ready for thesite evaluationwith local health. Design and construction will be cramped. Withevery inch of space is needed. A survey is usually advised to ensure that setbacks from property lines are met. Note the red survey steak marking the lot corner pin behind the transformer.

Local health will usually provide a package of forms and information explaining the application process.The helpfulness of health inspectors is generally better in the rural counties, but they will not tell you how to build septic tank systems. That information follows;

Important note:The site shouldnotbe cleared, scraped, leveled or otherwise disturbed until the details of the site layout have been figured out.If a water well is required on the site, it should be witched or locatedonlyafter a place has been found for the septic system.

Besides the description of soil texture and depth, the site evaluation usually has a scale hand drawn map like the one above.The map must show the location of the test pits. Most health departments require this evaluation to be done by a licensed person. Also, the surrounding conditions are shown in scale including property lines, buildings, wells, pipes, paved areas, surrounding septic systems if known, roads, easements, trees and banks. You must also show slope direction, drainage ways, surface water, and surrounding land uses. You can go to your local health records to see what your health department requires here and to see if you can make your own map.

A couple of 6 foot or deeper pits are usually required by local health in most counties.The pits or test holes have replaced the traditional percolation or perc test that used to be common in most areas. Today, the soil expert must have one or two or more pits dug with a back-hoe 5 or more feet deep, and wide enough and sloped so that he or she may walk down into them and sample the soil in the side walls.

Soil stability and safety are always considered for the inspectors and for casual members of the public. Kids are drawn to equipment and holes in the dirt. Leaving the holes open for later inspection is inferior to having local health attend the site inspection and close things up in a single trip for the backhoe. If the holes must be kept open, say for a later visit by local health, barricade or safely cover the holes to keep the public out.

Thesite evaluation by backhoeis a better test than the old perc test because itallows a wider look at the soil.

2. Soil classificationis next:The soil classification system used in most places in the USA (and in some other countries), is called theUS Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Classification System. Be aware that the ability to determine such qualities as soil texture and soil structure comes with experience.If you blow the soil classification, you may wind up with less or more drainfield than you need. More drainfield means needless expense. Less drainfield means early failure, usually with guests over.

The most restrictive soil type found in any of the pits in the area of the drainfield should guide your choice in the case of mixed or confusing soils anywhere within the drainfield area.Most test pits involve four or more soil types as you look down through the soil profile within each pit so study the soil directly below where the drainfield will be (between 36 inches and 48 inches below grade usually).

3.Younowdetermine the area of trenchfor your home: Dig a couple of six foot holes at each end of your drainfield area and check the soil type.

How to use the chart:In spite of what you think, the drainfield size isnotdependent on the number ofbathroomsorfixturesin the home. Almost all health departments use the number ofbedroomsin a home as a way to size drainfields.The number of people in the house (usually two to a bedroom), and their usual daily water use (usually sixty gallons per person per day), is how the flow rate is established.This flow rate of about three hundred sixty gallons of water use per day inside a three bedroom house determines the amount of sewage that must be sent to the drainfield. Once you have decided what type of soil is found under your future drainfield, look up the drainfield area required for your house size in the chart below and you have the required drainfield size. Note: The chart below was compiled from the rules of various states and many years of practical experience.Yourcounty may have very different sizes and by law youmustuse the chart from your local health department.

Soil Type:5 ft below grade in drainfield area by digging a person sizedtest pitat each end

2Bedroom House240 gallons of sewage/ day

3Bedroom House360 gallons of sewage/ day

4Bedroom House480 gallons of sewage/ day

Commercial Projectsfor every 100 gallons of sewage/ day

CoarseSand- most sand soils will requirepressure distribution if gravel is present and/or the lot is small

FineSand- Loamy CoarseSand- Loamy MedSand

Very Fine Sand – Loamy Fine Sand – AllLoams

OtherSilt Loams- AllClay Loams -AllClaysNote: some clays may not qualify foranysystem

bed type drainfields allowed if the soil type is fine sand or coarser – pressure distribution required with all bed designs andif soil isextremely gravelly or very gravellyplus asand liningmay be required under the drainfield

one square foot of drainfield is measured like a carpet looking down from the top – sidewall is not considered although some health

departments continue to give credit for up to 6 inches of sidewall calculated by measuring the perimeter of the bed or trenches – using

sidewall confuses calculations and has been discredited due to the fact that water in soil seldom moves sideways except when saturated

Return to Drainfield DesignReturn to Site Evaluation Perc Test

Drainfield layout requires at least 2 equal sized trenches.From the septic tank a single drain line is no longer advised. The separation of flow into two, three or more lines is accomplished with a distribution box orD-boxto split the flow. In the D-box pipes are equipped with simple flow control valves in the form of eccentric plugs that evenly split the flow between lines. The effluent (sewage that has gone through the septic tank) flows downhill from the tank outlet, through the D-box and down to the individual trenches where it spills out onto the floor of each trench where treatment starts in the soil at that location. Dont forget, the individual trenches areNOTsloped, but aredead levelfrom one end to the other.

Your local health department rules.Your county health department has rules and guidelines to follow. Sometimes rules are the same as state guidelines, but sometimes more restrictive rules special to your county must be followed. These rules include depths and setbacks and construction details. Such things as how far you can place the drainfield from a water well (usually 100 feet), a building (usually 10 feet), a water line (usually 10 feet), a stream, pond or lake (75 to 100 feet), the septic tank (generally 5 feet), or even a tree (5 to 50 feet depending on species) cuts and banks (varies state to state, and county to county) are spelled out. They will specify how deep the trenches can be (usually no deeper than three feet max from final grade down to the floor of the trench), and even whether you may use the plastic vault technology shown here. The key to getting the correct results from your health department people, is to present your ideas clearly and completely inyour drawings.There is often someback and forthwith the health department. You may be asked several times to return with fresh drawings to meet all of the site requirements and rules that the department has on its books.

Before you begin drawing your project, you must have all the rules from local health. This may be in the form of a two-page handout or a thick ordinance of dozens of pages.

By the way, asquare foot of gravel in a drainfieldis measured like a carpet, covering a 12 inch by 12 inch piece of ground, except the gravel is one foot thick. Therefore, a drainfield trench covering 300 square feet, is a pit, three feet wide and one hundred feet long, with a foot deep of gravel in the bottom. (In reality, you will use two trenches at 50 feet long each.) The gravel is covered with a tough but thin fabric to keep the dirt out calledfilter fabric. The whole thing is buried with a cover (backfill) of one to two feet of native soil. The thickness of backfill depends on the desired trench depth. The gravel is not really gravel at all, but a uniform clean washedrockwith granules one and a half inches in diameter known to a gravel pit operator as inch-and-a-half drainrock.

You may now in most areas substitute rows of plastic chambers instead of the old school leachfield gravel.are two companies who supply this productThe vaults hook together like a freight train and are very easy to transport and build. The green pipes are inspection/squirt ports for the homeowner looking into the drainfield especially if trouble occurs down the road. The ports are also used for periodicsquirt testingand are cut down to the finish depth after the drainfield is backfilled.Construction details for this house and dozens of other systems are shown in our drawings.

Excavators and installers usually prefer the vaultsover drainrock once they have tried them.Most health jurisdictionsare recognizing the value and efficiency of the vault technology and the use of vaults is becoming widespread across the USA. Gravel is used for geometric reasons and can be cheaper particularly if the job is close to the supply. Gravel is also used if livestock or vehicular traffic could invade the drainfield. Drainrock is a little more robust than most vaults.

Also, some health inspectors give credit for the increased storage capacity of the vaults over gravel systems.Each linear foot of standard vault in the ground yields around 10 gallonsof storage.A linear foot of 3 ft wide gravel trench yields less than half of thateven with the highest quality drainrock. You may get 400 Sq Ft of credit for our trench that actuallycontains only 300 Sq Ft of ground. This may save vital space on a tight site.

Vaults now come in several widths, lengths and heights. However, the standard width is a little less than three feet wide (but generally 3 feet is the width used for design and space planning) and two standard lengths 6 and 4 feet.

TheSeptic Design CDavailable on this web-siteallows you to create plans that may bemodified and editedto meet the needs of your local health department whatever they are.Often a few simple notes or other changes can satisfy the specific rules of most health jurisdictions, but notes and requirements must usually be typed onto the plans. Drawings are the language of construction of anything. Besides,this isnotyour grandfathers septic system. Our drawings talk the new lingo.

Study the drawings shown below.Permit drawings also tell others how to build septic tank systems.These two sheets represent the complete drawing set for agravity designfor the three-bedroom house on our model property shown below. The level of detail required may depend on the inspectors preference. However, all buildings, walkways, property lines, retaining walls and the location of the original test holes must be shown.

4.apply for the permit:Now Make Your Application to Local Health:Submit your plans at the counter of the local health department. You will have to fill out the application form and pay thepermitfee. The example septic system drawings for r our model property are shown below.You now must wait forthe drawingsto be reviewedandapprovedbefore going on to the construction phase. Ask local health what the customary time frame is for permit application review. It should not take more than two or three weeks at the most to receive the approved construction permit in the mail unless there is a local backlog, a staff shortage or a deliberately slow process in your area.

Local Health Will Approve Your Drawingsusually with a signature and a nstruction should usually begin within one year of that date to avoid losing the permit and having to start from scratch with a new fee.You should get a copy of the permit in the mail once the drawings are approved. You must follow all the notes and details on the drawings exactly.Look for and follow the printed instructions and any special notes that local health adds to the permit face. Local health will inspect your work before anything is covered so plan your job carefully.Click on the drawings for a close-up.You will naturally apply your logo and address on the plans.

The left hand drawing shows the Site Planwith all of the required information in scale. The drawings are for printing on standard 8.5 x 11 copy paper. This format is the most handy size for filing and favored by health departments for storage convenience. Some health departments have gone all electronic and our drawings convert into PDF files with ease. Click on the drawings above to see them in PDF format.

Thedrawing on the right above is ourdrawingGTGV3WDDfrom ourCD for gravity septic designs. You can see it in our archive about half way down on the page under the topic Vault designs using 3 trenches only.Once you have a plan view layout for your system, find the matching detail page for your trench cross section, trench layout and standard notes.

The layout stage of the job transfers the design to the ground.Excavation is like sewing. The Layout of all parts of the design (the pattern) must be projected onto the site (the cloth) and cutting in more than once will increasewastage.If there was acaution for young excavatorsit would benever to over excavate.Measuring twice and cutting once applies here. Before you begin, be sure that the drawing is accurate and that it matches the site pare the site plan on your approved design to a plat map of the site if you have to, to make sure that the drawings match and show the correct scale.On theapproved drawings from the health department, add up all strings of dimensions to make sure that a critical measurement has not been missed.Always find and mark the corners of the property.Do not use existing fences or the advice of neighbors unless you are sure of the property lines from a legal survey.

Here in the image to the left,the construction crew is checkingthe location of the third trench. A long200 foot tape, aLufkintwenty-five-foot tape,wooden stakesand ared rattle can of spray paintare the tools of choice for this stage. Gravity systems willonlywork wellif the bottom of the trench sits in undisturbed ground and is level. Sewer slope doesNOTapply in the drainfield.Level means dead level. Read this caution again if you are not with me.

Be careful not to begin excavation until local health has approved your plans, no mater how eager you are to get started.Even though you have applied for and paid for a permit – If theinspectorhas not approved the design, they may require layout changes. He or she willnotlisten to excuses such as we had to get the backhoe back, so we started without the permit.RULE: Once you have applied, listen to the inspectorand follow all instructions, or start reading this page againfrom the top.

The tripod on the sidewalk on the left side of the picture to the right is a.This tool has been around for twenty years and developed with public money. Do not begin this job without one. With the special level rod, an assistant may walk around the site and find the elevation of any point of the excavation within an inch (2 cm) anywhere within sight of the tripod by listening to a beep from the box on the rod when you are on elevation.

This tool(the laser level)is particularly useful to ensure that the trenches are notover excavated.Constant attention to elevation is the key to a successful job.Older leveling technology such as asurveyors transitmay be used as long as you know how to use it, but dont ever think you know how to build septic tank systems with a standard construction bubble type level. I do not care if your level is 20 feet long.Laser levelsandallthe needed tools are availableeverywhere to rent.

Once you are done excavating, the health inspectormustbe called for afinal inspectionof the job. Then backfilling occurs. The tanks, pipes and vaults can and should be backfilled around their sides during construction though. More counties are requiring leak testing of the tank these days. Vacuum testing, pressure testing or water testing of all tanks may be required in your area. Backfilling around the sides of concrete tanks may be postponed until the final inspection to check for leaks if desired by the county inspector. Most plastic tanks will distort under such stress and must be backfilled at the same time as they are filled with water for the first time.

In the picture to the right, the crew is using the top of the septic tank in the foreground as a work table and a datum. Notice the difference in elevation between the top of the tank and the surface of the nearby sidewalk (hint – about a foot or 30 cm.) This tank will be less than a foot underground when the lawn is planted.

A word here about pipes and drainage.comes in a variety of sizes and types. Pipes in a gravity system are either 4 inch diameter.ASTM Schedule 40. These pipe types arebetween the house and the tank. These pipes can not be crushed by stepping on them.(perforated drainfield pipe is made of this thin stuff) andto stand up to being driven over with a car, etc when placed in shallow trenches (a normal condition in modern septic systems.)counties allow the thin wall pipe between the tank and the drainfield – we do not.

Pipe2pipe slopesused in septic systems, thesewer slope(contains solids) andeffluent line slope(no solids.)The building sewer must besloped(sometimes called fall) atbetween 1/8 per foot and 1/4 per foot.In other words the pipe must drop at least one inch for every 8 feet of sewer line, and not more than one inch for every 4 feet all the way to the septic tank. Less slope and the flow is too slow to clear the pipe. More slope and the water theoretically drains off too quickly and the solids will become stranded and cause a blockage. This idea of maximum slope no greater than 1/4 per foot has been challenged recently, but an engineering justification is required to allow this in practice. Almost all health departments require this minimum slope of 1/4 per foot and will require stair stepping down steep slopes. However, do not ignore the minimum slope requirement in a sewer line for any reason, or that spot on your property will become a perpetual problem in the system.Effluent lines can slope less than the sewer, and more.They can fall with as little as 1/64th of an inch per foot (experiencedexcavators only) and effluent lines drop atany maximum slopeyou choose.

Drainfield Slope:It never hurts to remindeveryonelearning how to build septic tank systems, that thedrainfield trenches and bedswhether vaults or gravelare built dead flatwith no slope at all end-to-end or side-to-side. Some ancient drainfield plans call for a slope in the drainfield, but this practice went out with the manufacture of clay sewer pipe. Resist the advice of friends and neighbors to put a slope in the drainfield. Trenches can naturally be at different elevations based on the ground contours, but each trench or bed (leaching bed) should be levelwithin an inch up or down over the entire bed or each individual length of trench.Your system will last longer.

down to the tank from the house slopestoomuch, thesewermust be dropped straight down in a series of drops followed by propersewer slopeto the next drop. The drops are good places for cleanouts. Remember also that anyright anglebends in the sewer pipe arenotallowedwhen changing direction in the sewer, down or side-to-side. Always usetwo 45 degree elbowsor90 degree sweepsinstead of a 90 degreeelbowto allow proper cleaning with a snake or roto-rooter. Also put in aclean-outto direct a snake (a metal probe for cleaning out blockages from the surface) starting at the outside of the house toward the tankevery 50 feet(100 feet absolute maximum) in thesewerline. Clean-outs and 45 degree elbows are not needed in the effluent line. If the ground slopes towards the house from the drainfield area, or if the site is flat, you may need to pump the effluent from the elevation of the septic tank up to the drainfield (or leach bed.)

Afterthe septic tank, andafterthe D-Box all the way to the drainfield, the slope may beeffluent line slope,as little as 1/64 per foot. This requires expert excavation practice. The effluent line may drop down at any angle. All effluent lines must drain fully andnothave a sag in the line that could cause pools to form and in cooler climates cause aline freeze. Clickhereorherefor more aboutfreezing septic systems.

This view of the site shows the layout:

The septic tank can be seen on the right of the view between the first trench and the patio. On this job, and normally, the septic tank is delivered from the tank manufacturer andlowered from the truckinto a hole prepared by the excavator. The tank hole has a flat floor at the exact depth. Call the tank supplier to get the exact tank height and depths of the inlet and outlet. In rocky ground, two or three inches of pea gravel may be needed to protect the tank bottom. The septic tank is often the first thing to be added to a new house site.

A concrete tank in our area runs about $550 delivered up to 40 miles, and further for a few dollars more. Fiberglass tanks and ribbed polyethylene septic tanks are not usually advised as they are not only more expensive but they may not be sturdy enough to do the job. Flexible tanks tend to distort over time particularly when they are pumped out. Dont trust a tank that cant safely be filled with water in the parking lot without distorting or leaking. Steel tanks are still used in remote, colder locations such as Alaska, but sewage is corrosive to steel. Metal components have a limited life in septic systems and should be avoided if possible .

In the view to the left, the backhoe is working on the third trench. The vaults are in place in the first two trenches and the vault units seen near the backhoe are waiting to go into the third trench when it is finished. The site is being watered with the hose as work progresses. The site may need to be sprinkled for a day or more prior to construction for the same reason. Although this keeps dust down, the primary reason for adding water to dry soil is to provide proper moisture for compaction of the dirt around the pipes and parts. Water is usually used to soak the sides of the tank to compact the soil and fill in voids to avoid sink holes in the lawn. Very wet or very cold weather is not the time to build septic tank systems. Good excavators avoid working in extreme conditions except in emergencies. Working in poor weather usually involves return trips to smooth and refinish surface grades and is more expensive.

are placed in the trench, the side walls of the trench are roughened with a garden rake. This important step prevents the formation of bacterial scum on the trench walls called smearing which can cause earlyfailureof the drainfield. In some areas, the excavators weld teeth to the side of the backhoe bucket to do

Septic systems are plumbing systems:

In this view, the concrete D-box has been placed where it belongs and the effluent lines are being pushed into the seals. Although all the other pipe joints are glued together, where the lines enter thetank and D-box, the pipes are pushed into thespecial seals without glue.Older construction methods require lines to be sealed into D-boxes and tanks with concrete grout. To the left bottom of the picture to the right, the yellow plastic rotatable flow control seals are waiting to be placed into the pipe ends to evenly distribute the flow between the trenches. Next to the excavator is the level rod for checking the level of the D-box and the pipes.The system works because of the difference in elevation between the sewer line leaving the house, the septic tank, the D-box, the effluent lines to the trenches and the floor elevations of all of the trenches themselves.These final elevations must be taken from theapproved plans(see above.) The finish grade and backfill will have to cover everything at the required depth when you are done. Often the top of the septic tank is used as a datum or benchmark. The floor of a well house, an existing slab, any reasonably immovable object will qualify as a benchmark but many of these things are builtafterthe septic. Property corners on a site can change elevation.

is ready to go. The flow control has been set by pouring a bucket of water into the box and rotating the seals to make the opening in each seal break the surface at the same elevation. This evenly distributes the flow between the three outlet lines leading to the three trenches. The inlet to the d-box is on the right and does not have a flow control seal.

The sandy dirt around the pipes has been walked and compacted to ensure that the lines will not be disturbed during backfilling.The backfill will form a slight hump over the drainfield so that eventual settling will not cause low spots over the drainfield over time. Note the expandable urethane foam sealing the effluent line at the top of the view to the left where the northeast effluent line disappears into the vault. This attention to detail by some excavators distinguishes the best from the rest.Skill and attention to detailswill help you more than anything elseto ensure that the septic system will notfailwithin its useful life of fifteen to twenty-five years. Most Owners say at the first meeting with the designer I dont want to have to mess with it. They will call the contractors back to the site at the first sign of trouble. D

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Model Railway Trains

Learn how to build your own Model Railway Layouts

Discover some of the longest model railways in the world.

This model railway took 500,000 working hours and is stretched over 4km² with plans to increase this to 6km² in 2014. The model rail track runs for 9km at a cost of 7.3 million Euros.

Named Loxx after the German word Loks meaning locomotives. This model railway took over 200,000 labour hours to create and has 4.15km of track.

Check out the Loxx railway in action with this video:

This is described as one of the largest model railways in O gauge and it depicts the East Coast Main Line from London King Cross (UK) to Leeds Central. The rail track runs for 0.8km (1/2 mile) and requires at least 10 operators for it to run successfully.

This is Europes largest type O model railway and is situated in the town of Lichtensteig in Switzerland.

Toggenburg model railway boasts 1.2km of track on an area of 500m squared.

Northlandz is the worlds largest miniature railway and took 25 years of dedication which is clear from looking at the photos. It has 8 miles of track and what is even more impressive is that it has over 4,000 buildings and 1/2 million trees!

The Sierra Pacific lines has 30,000ft of hand laid steel track and is the largest HO model railway in the world. This model railway was started in 1940 and from end to end it takes a train one hour to complete the route.

Model Railway LayoutsNorthlandzToggenburgWunderlandgreatest railwaysloxxmodel railways

on 5 of the World’s Greatest Model Railways

How to Get Started Building Model Train Layouts

The ride home from obtaining your first model train layout and accessories is an amazingly slow journey if youre itching to get home and start running model trains. Fortunately, there are enough train enthusiasts that obtaining the things you need to build a model train layout is not difficult. But the steps of how to get started building model train layouts actually beginbeforeyou start setting up.

You need anything from a clear tabletop to an entire room for creating your model train layout. For little N-scale or Z-scale models, a generous tabletop is enough for a fairly elaborate layout. For larger models, like O-scale and G-scale, more room will be necessary. The place you choose for your model train layout needs to be dry, fairly clean, and have adequate electricity. And you need to choose a location where people wont trip over electrical cords.

If you want to be practical about it, you should set up your scenery first and then add the tracks and trains. This way youre less likely knock trains and tracks askew when adding mountains, buildings, or other features. Realistically, however, most model rail enthusiasts are more interested in getting those tracks put down and actually running the trains on them.

If you are not sure what kind of layout to create, there are dozens of websites with suggestions and instructions on exactly how to replicate a certain layout. If you plan to create a model railway layout as a replica of an actual rail line, you might start with photos from Google Earth. Joining a train enthusiast web forum will hook you up with other model railway builders, most of whom will be happy to share their expertise and tips with you. One of the greatest rewards for all your hard work building model train layouts will be sharing it with others who are just as excited about it as you are.

Model Railway LayoutsModel Railway Trains

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on How to Get Started Building Model Train Layouts

Track pieces for model railways are designated by their gauge which is the distance between the rails. For example, the popular HO scale train has track that is 5/8 or 16.5 mm wide, and the scale of the rolling stock is 1:87.1.

When you plan a model railway track layout, you need to be familiar with loading gauge. All it means is the space required on top of and on either side of the track so that the train doesnt knock over anything. You can test this simply by adding your largest cars to the track and noting their outside dimensions, particularly as they go around curves.

If you have a model train with a pantograph on top, you need to account for the height of the pantograph when it is fully extended. (A pantograph is a metal device on top of a train that collects electricity from overhead lines. They are used on electric trams and electric trains.) You also need to account for any loads that your cars will be carrying. Do they stick out to the sides or above?

As for track layouts, much will depend on what locomotives you want to use and how fast you want the train to go. Generally speaking, the faster you want your train to go, the larger the turning radius you need on curves. Otherwise centrifugal force will cause it to derail. If you want to run locomotives that arent pulling cars, you need to adjust the turning radii depending on how powerful that locomotive is. If it is powerful enough to go really fast when its by itself, it will also require a larger turning radius to keep from derailing.

You may not give much thought to the gauge of track for your layout, but simply buy track made for the scale, such as HO. That is fine. However, there are narrow gauge purists who set up narrow gauge tracks to mimic some of the narrow gauges that were used in the early days of railroads. Its just more proof that with model railways, the possibilities are endless!

Model railway track plans range from the tiniest Z-scale tabletop trains to backyard trains that you can actually ride on. The hobby of creating track plans for model railways is as attractive to adults as it is for children. Track plans can consist of a simple loop (popular underneath Christmas trees in North America) or extremely elaborate routes with spurs, switches, curves and straight areas.

There are numerous scales of model trains, so you should take the size and scale of the train into account when making your model railway track plans. One popular scale developed in the 1950s in the UK is O gauge, with 32 mm tracks and wheels. This scale was perhaps the most popular one of the 1960s and 1970s. While O scale trains started out being mostly indoor trains, the scale eventually became popular for outdoor garden railways as well.

The most popular scale model railroad in the world is HO scale, with the HO standing for Half O because it is half the size of O scale railroads. There is a huge selection of kits, parts, locomotives and accessories for HO scale trains. One reason this scale is so popular is that it is one of the most affordable. O scale model trains tend to be proportionally more expensive.

Part of the fun of model railway track plans is that you can gradually add to them over the years: cars, locomotives, scenery such as trees, even papier maché mountains with tunnels are reasonably-sized projects for HO scale model trains. Another advantage of using such a popular scale layout is that youll have an easier time purchasing secondhand accessories, and if you join a model railway club, you will probably meet plenty of enthusiasts who also have HO scale trains.

Making model railway track plans is an activity that school-aged children, their parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents can all enjoy.

First things first you need to beg, steal or buy a copy of Model Railroad Bridges & Trestles: A Guide to Designing and Building Bridges for Your Layout (Model Railroad Handbook, No 33) as this book will teach you how to plan your layout from start to finish with clear diagrams and descriptions.

If your budget stretches, I would also look at getting a copy of Railway Modelling: The complete guide, which is a hardback book that will offer help and advice for all aspects of model railway building.

Starting out there are three main railway layouts to choose from:

This is your basic layout that most people start with when they buy a model train starter kit.

Not very realistic (how many oval railway layouts do you see in real life?)

Train can look like its chasing its own tail

2. Covered Oval Model Railway Layout

This is the most popular railway layout used and is very similar to the oval layout but this time a part of the track is covered.

This railway layout is used to set a scene and is just a straight length of track that ends at both sides of the baseboard.

You need to choose a model railway layout that fits your needs. If this is your first layout keep it small, you can alway add extra track later!

It doesn‟t have to cost hundreds or thousands of dollars to start building your model railroad. By making your own scenery, shopping around and choosing the right type of train for your space you can save a lot of money. The great thing about model railroading is that you can always add to it. No matter if you purchase a full kit or the individual pieces, do your homework before you buy. If you buy online, check out the dealer before you purchase from them to ensure you are getting a good deal from a good dealer. If you purchase from a store make sure that you know their return policy should you get it home and realize it wasn‟t what you thought it was or it‟s broken. Taking the extra time can save you a lot of hassle in the end. Even if your budget to start is small you can still have a great railroad if you just spend the time to make it your own.

If you are interested in second hand items you want to be sure to check for a few things. As with all online purchases, purchases on EBay are subject to a picture and description. You can‟t hold the item in your hand and inspect it to ensure it‟s as good of quality as you‟d like it to be.

A good rule of thumb is purchasing only items that have a good description and several pictures. Close-up type pictures are best, but honestly some dealers just don‟t think of it, it doesn‟t automatically mean they are trying to hide something. You do want to deal with a dealer that will take multiple pictures from multiple angles. This will give you a full picture of your possible purchase.

Be sure to study these photos with extreme care. If you need better photos don‟t hesitate to contact the seller to see if more photos can be provided. There are some things you need to look at prior to making the purchase and additional photos might be the only way to tell. It‟s very important that you look the photos over for rust. Also check the collector roller and assembly. You need to see how warn it is in order to tell how much it‟s been used. If the seller is claiming the engine is 50 or more years old and has a shiny new collector roller that just means it‟s been replaced. You should look to see if there are any obvious repairs and if they look to be in good condition.

Check the wiring and electronics if possible. What you don‟t want to see on the engine is cracked wires, sloppy connections such as poor soldering, and disconnected wires. This means that the engine wasn‟t cared for properly. Make sure that the headlight socket is also well connected. If you can get a look at them, check the brush motors to ensure they are in good shape. Yes eventually all wiring goes bad, what you don‟t want to pay for is an engine that supposedly works but hasn‟t been taken care of. You might find repairs to the wiring during your inspection but that‟s okay as long as the repairs are good repairs.

You will also want to check the wheels. If you are looking for an engine that hasn‟t been run the wheels are where to check. Wear on these are an indication of usage. Even if you don‟t care if the engine has been run a lot you still need to check for rust, chips, and cracks. You can make a determination on how the engine has been cared for if you see chips and cracks. Check the axels to ensure they are not bent as well.

A few other things to check for before purchasing a used train are: is the engine dirty or just discolored? Dirty engines doesn‟t necessary mean that it hasn‟t been taken care of but sometimes it‟s hard to tell dirt from discoloration in a photo. If you‟re in doubt contact the seller to verify. You also need to know if the engine is a working engine or not. This is not a bad thing either. Many people buy non-working trains and fix them up themselves, it‟s part of the charm. That being said you don‟t want to do business with a seller that claims to have a working engine that actually doesn‟t work.

Also look for any burred or missing screws. Burred screws shows lack of care. Burred or missing screws generally mean someone that didn‟t really know what they were doing took the train apart. This is not a good thing.

Probably the easiest way to get the trains you want of the internet is onEBay. This popular auction site has tremendous amounts of trains in just about every scale imaginable. You will be able to obtain many of these trains without paying an arm and a leg as well. If you dont want to mess with the auctioning process, several of them come with a Buy Now price that will allow you to pay a set price for the item, stopping all auction process.

You wont find just trains here either;you can find everything you need to build your own railway. Scenery, track, power supplies you can get it all here. Often these items are new or only gently used so you know that you are getting a good quality product from the sellers.

When you shop on EBay its important to do your homework. Check out the sellers that you are considering purchasing your items from. You want to make sure they have good feedback so that you can be sure that you are getting the best for your money. This will also help to ensure that if you purchase one of their products you are only doing business with people who are guaranteed to send you your item in a timely manner.

Also its best to keep business dealings on EBay. While it might seem more convenient to talk through an instant messenger or e-mail, should you have a problem EBay cant take those records into account while settling the dispute. Be sure that you pay the person in a secure manner such as PayPal. Also if you dont really want the item or are unsure dont bid, you could be keeping someone who really wants it from winning at a fair price or worse with merchandise you really dont want.

When it comes to bidding on EBay it can be a little intimidating, especially if youre new at it. Doing your homework before placing your first bid can make the difference in not just winning the bid, but not paying too much for the item youre bidding on. If youve never bid on an auction before you dont want to just rush in there and bid on the first item you like. It might be a good idea to find something you are sort of interested in but not so interested that youd be upset if someone else won it. Dont bid on it, save the bid to your favorites so that you can see how the bidding goes. You can watch the back and forth without risking any money on it. This should help you get a feel for how an auction will run.

Another good way to research the bidding process is to find one that is recently closed. Here you can review the back and forth bidding and see how the auction went without having to constantly come back to it.

Before you can make your first bid on EBay, there is a term you need to understand. This term is called the reserve price. This is probably one of the most important terms you need to know prior to making a bid. The reserve price is a price that sellers can use to void the bid if their ideal price isnt met. This is an optional price the seller does not have to set it, and those that do not have a reserve price will usually have a NR on their item description somewhere. Its an abbreviation for no reserve, and not all of them let you know there is no reserve.

The rub is a reserve price is secret, its not revealed at the beginning of the auction. An opening bid does not mean there is a reserve price and the opening bid requirement is not the reserve price. If you have been following some auctions you might have noticed after a few bids the phrases Reserve not met or Reserve met have appeared at the top of the item listing. This is an indication that there is a reserve on the auction, but the amount is never shown.

There are also a wide variety of abbreviations used to describe items on EBay. The list is extensive and can be found at the following link:

It probably would benefit you to make yourself at least somewhat familiar with the commonly used acronyms before you make your first bid.

After youve watched a few auctions, or at least enough to be comfortable with the process, its time to try your hand at one yourself. You have poked around EBay and youve found the train youd like to bid on. Now for the difficult part, you have to make a bid. You will notice on most bids there is an opening bid, or a minimum amount most sellers will accept. Since youve got your eye on that train, youve probably done your homework to determine how much the train is actually worth; the whole point is to get it at a bargain right? Youve read the description and have determined that the train is in good condition. Youve looked up the seller and read all the feedback and have found that the person is a reputable seller. You also know how much you can or are willing to spend on this item. Its important to have a budget in mind before you start bidding.

For the sake of example lets say the opening bid is $10. You know the going rate for the train is $100. Its best to start on the lower end, close to the opening bid. If there is a reserve and your maximum bid does not meet it you will see the Reserve not met notice once the bid is placed. You might want to place another bid with a higher maximum or you can choose to wait and see what the next person does before trying to at least meet the reserve price. If your maximum bid is out bid you can bid again. If your bid is the winner you will receive an e-mail from stating you won and instructions on payment and receipt of your new train.

Now that the basics of bidding on EBay have been explained there are some techniques people have suggested to ensure that you win the bid. Its calledsniping. It is not recommended for the beginner but after youve gotten used to the bidding process it might help you ensure the big win.

Sniping is when you put in a winning bid in the last few seconds of the auction. You usually have been following the auction for several days and have an idea of where the bidding is going. You need to log on a few minutes before the end of the bid to monitor the activity. Youll have to refresh often to ensure that you see the most recent highest bid.With a minute or less left on the bid is when you need to make your move. Place a bid just higher than the highest bid. Doing this with only a few seconds left in the auction will get you your train.

There are lots of softwares out there that can help you time your sniping just right if you are interested in going this route. Or you can simply open two browsers to the site and place them side by side on your screen. Keep updating one so you can have the most accurate and use the other to place your bid at the right moment.

The electronics can be a little trickier. You will need some electronic components to run you railway. For those that are handy with tools you might consider rigging the electrical circuits of your railway yourself. There are lots of books on the subject. You will still have to purchase things like a power pack and wiring but wiring it up yourself can save you money. Instead of purchasing entire kits you can do the work for less than it would normally cost. That being said, if you are not comfortable working with electric components, its best not to do it yourself.

For those who are uncomfortable working with the electric components or simply dont have the time. Hobby stores are the place to head. You can speak to someone there that is very knowledgeable on the subject. They can steer you to the cheapest, most effective model of power pack they have and ensure you get the type you need for your engine. If you are doing more than just powering your engine, like say lighting your entire town, then they can help you find the pack or packs that are best for that as well.

If you know what you are looking for, even if you dont want to wire it from scratch yourself, then you might be able to find the pieces cheaper at the electronics store. An electronics store is sure to have a wide array of power packs and switches for you to use. Some of the packs will come ready to hook up, just like you would find at the hobby shop, so all you have to do is attach it using the simple instructions and youre off and running.

You can find discount power packs and electrical components on the internet as well. If you are unsure of what to purchase, you need to do the research before you purchase. A quick Google search will give you everything you need to know about the voltage you need. All you have to do is put in the type of train you‟re running (as in HO, O, Z etc.) and you should be able to find an answer to your question. It is suggested though; if you are running your train and a lot of accessories off of the same power pack get at least an 18V pack.

When it comes to saving money on your railroad, the background and scenery might be the place to accomplish this. Spend a little of your budget on how to books. These insightful books can tell you how to make your own realistic scenery. Itll cost you a fraction of the price to make your own from scratch than it would to purchase ready-made pieces.

If you dont have time to stop at the book store, check online. There are dozens of places to find tips on making your own scenery. As for background pictures, anything you can take with a camera and blow up, or at least print out can serve as a great backdrop for your railroad. Making your own scenes for your railway will give you a sense of pride and accomplishment. It guarantees you get exactly what you want. You dont even have to be a masterful artist, many of these books and instructions will give you the step-by-step procedure designed for those with less than expert experience.

If you are all thumbs or just simply dont have time to render every tree in your town and countryside, then looking for pieces that are ready to stick on your bench will be your answer. You can still find good deals if you know where to look. Like with the train and track pieces you can find scenery on sale at your local hobby store. As with any other piece you can find sales and discontinued items that will allow you to save money.

The benefit of going this route is you know that it will look good, a professional has made it. You also know that it will be the right size, shape and color for what you are trying to accomplish with your railway. You will end up paying more for the completed product than you would if you made it yourself, thats a fact everyone will admit to.

Heading to the internet can net you with some great discounted pieces for your scenery. Many of these companies are the same people that sell the tracks and trains, if you purchase all your pieces from them you can be assured that you have the correct scale of scenery to go with your train. Often times you will get an additional discount if you spend a certain amount and that discount might cover shipping costs bringing the price down even lower.

As with the trains, you have to rely on the pictures and descriptions to ensure you are getting what you want but often you will find better deals than in the stores. The internet is also full of beautiful pictures that you can download to blow-up and print as your background. Often you wont have to pay for the picture you download if you are planning on using it for your own private uses.

The internet is also full of tips. Here you can find how to use everyday items as parts of your scenery with little to no work. A little paint, a little glue and you might have everything you need to make a grassy area, or pebbles to stick along the track. Your imagination is the limit when it comes to making your scenery for little cost.

Now that you have a budget and you know how you want things to look its time to actually find the train pieces you need. There are lots of places to find trains at a discount.A nice starting place is a train show or expo. Lots of towns, especially larger ones, will have these gatherings at least once a year.

Here you can find a large variety of trains, track, and other railroad paraphernalia. Lots of times you can find great deals on items here as many dealers are selling direct without a middle man. Often they run discounts and specials on their goods here because of the traffic that they receive just by being set up at the train show.

You might have done your research and decided on a different scale than the one of your dreams because you found it too expensive during your research. While youre at the train show you could actually find the pieces you originally wanted for a lower price and can have the railroad of your dreams. These shows are worth a look if there is one in your area.

Even if you cant make it to a train show you can still find good deals on model trains. Head over to your nearest hobby store. Quiet often, especially around holidays, stores hold sales. You can find items at a nice discount during these sales. You might also find some cars or engines in your scale that are being discontinued. This would give you a unique car or engine in your collection that might end up being your crown jewel. Many times these discontinued pieces are sold at deep discounts to make way for the new style generation, their loss is your gain.

If youve looked at the stores and have decided they are too expensive you might need to just turn to the internet. By doing a quick search on the net you can find dozens of retailers that offer their stock at a discount compared to that in which you find in stores. Why? Mostly it has to do w

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Learn how to approach the design process

Learn tips and best practices for voice design

Webinar: Learn how to start designing for voice

Build your Alexa skill with our tools, APIs, and code samples

Get started quickly using our tutorials

Refer to our reference material for technical details

Visit our GitHub page for these resources

Publish, measure, and refine your skill

Prepare your skill for certification

Earn AWS credits for charges your skill incurs

Build skills and earn developer perks

Enable customers to interact via voice and screen

Reach tens of millions of customers

Deliver voice-first experiences to Fire TV customers

Integrate Alexa directly into your products

Read the latest news and announcements

Review available audio configurations

Learn best practices and design requirements

Get started with these easy-to-use software libraries

Start building with these hardware reference solutions

Systems Integrators and ODMs for AVS

Prepare to test your Alexa-enabled product

Build with the Smart Home Skill API

Launch your skill or submit your product

Learn how to create skills for Alexa Gadgets

Learn about hardware reference solutions

ASK CLI and Skill Management API docs

Build Skills with the Alexa Skills Kit

Build Skills with the Alexa Skills Kit

Understand the Different Skill Models

Understand How Users Interact with Skills

Create and Manage Skills in the Developer Console

Manage Skills in the Developer Console

Create a Skill and Choose the Interaction Model

Prepare Your Skill for Distribution

Define Skill Store Details and Availability

Test and Submit Your Skill for Certification

Build Skills for Alexa-Enabled Devices With a Screen

Display and Behavior Specifications for Alexa-Enabled Devices Wih a Screen

Create Skills for Alexa-Enabled Devices With a Screen

Best Practices for Designing Skills for Alexa-Enabled Devices With a Screen

Test for Screen-Based Interaction Issues in Your Alexa Skill

Use the Alexa Skills Kit Samples (Custom Skills)

Deploy a Sample Custom Skill to AWS Lambda

Deploy a Sample Custom Skill as a Web Service

Understanding How Users Invoke Custom Skills

Choose the Invocation Name for a Custom Skill

Voice Design Best Practices (Legacy)

Configure a Skill for Multiple Languages

Host a Custom Skill as an AWS Lambda Function

Host a Custom Skill as a Web Service

Build the Interaction Model (Intents, Slots, and Dialogs)

Create the Interaction Model for Your Skill

Create Intents, Utterances, and Slots

Define the Dialog to Collect and Confirm Required Information

Use a Dialog Model to Manage Ambiguous Responses

Define Synonyms and IDs for Slot Type Values (Entity Resolution)

Best Practices for Sample Utterances and Custom Slot Values

Review the Intent History for a Custom Skill

Use Built-in Intents and Slot Types

Understand the Structure of the Built-in Intent Library

Send the User a Progressive Response

Understand Name-free Interaction for Custom Skills

Implement CanFulfillIntentRequest for Name-free Interaction

Personalize the Customer Experience

Configure Permissions for Customer Information in Your Skill

Enhance Your Skill with Address Information

Access the Alexa Shopping and To-Do Lists

Include a Card in Your Skills Response

Best Practices for Skill Card Design

Configure Your Web Service to Use a Self-signed Certificate

Deploy a Web Service for a Custom Skill to AWS Elastic Beanstalk

Certification Requirements for Custom Skills

Requirements for Skills that Allow Purchases

Security Testing for an Alexa Skill

Functional Testing for a Custom Skill

Voice Interface and User Experience Testing for a Custom Skill

Request and Response JSON Reference

Request Types Reference (LaunchRequest, CanFulfillIntentRequest, IntentRequest, SessionEndedRequest)

GadgetController Interface Reference

PlaybackController Interface Reference

Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) Reference

Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) Reference

Speechcon Reference (Interjections): English (Australia)

Speechcon Reference (Interjections): English (Canada)

Speechcon Reference (Interjections): English (India)

Speechcon Reference (Interjections): English (US)

Speechcon Reference (Interjections): English (UK)

Speechcon Reference (Interjections): French

Speechcon Reference (Interjections): German

Speechcon Reference (Interjections): Japanese

Sell Premium Content with In-Skill Purchasing

Use the ASK CLI to Create and Manage In-Skill Products

Add In-Skill Purchases to a Custom Skill

In-Skill Purchase Certification Guide

Sell Physical Goods and Services with Amazon Pay

Payment Declines and Processing Errors

Understand the Smart Home Skill API

Smart Home Skill API Message Reference

Understand State Reporting for a Smart Home Skill

Authenticate a Customer to Alexa Using Permissions

Send Events to the Alexa Event Gateway

Develop Smart Home Skills in Multiple Languages

Provide Scenes in a Smart Home Skill

Build Smart Home Skills for Cameras

Build Smart Home Skills for Cooking Appliances

Build Smart Home Skills for Thermostats

Build Smart Home Skills for Entertainment Devices

Certify Your Devices with Works with Alexa

Works with Alexa Requirements for a Smart Home Skill

Works with Alexa Security Best Practices

How to Use the State Reporting Test Tool

Build Skills for Conferencing Devices

Create and Publish Private Skills (Developer Console)

Create and Publish Private Skills (ASK CLI)

ColorTemperatureController Interface

Message and Data Formats for Video Skills

Understand the Flash Briefing Skill API

Steps to Create a Flash Briefing Skill

Flash Briefing Skill Certification Checklist

Tips to Create a Great Flash Briefing Skill

Flash Briefing Skill API Feed Reference

Normalize the Loudness of Audio Content

Creating and Managing List Skills–An FAQ

Certification Guidelines for List Skills

Submit an Alexa List Skill for Certification

Steps to Build an Echo Button Skill

Add Echo Buttons to an Existing Skill

Submit an Echo Button Skill for Certification

Best Practices for Echo Button Skills

Get Metrics for an Echo Button Skill

Sample Echo Button Skills in GitHub

Echo Button Skills in the Alexa Skill Store

Account Linking for Smart Home and Other Domains

Configure Implicit Grant (Custom Skills Only)

Add Account Linking Logic to Your Skill Code

Validate and Use Access Tokens in Custom Skill Code

Validate and Use Access Tokens in Smart Home and Video Skill Code

Alexa Skills Kit SDKs (Public Beta)

ASK SDK v2 for Node.js (Public Beta)

Alexa Skills Kit Command Line Interface and Alexa Skill Management API Overview

Alexa Skills Kit Command Line Interface (ASK CLI) Quick Start

Set Up Credentials for an Amazon Web Services (AWS) Account

Alexa Skills Kit Command Line Interface (ASK CLI) Command Reference

Migration from Skill Management API (SMAPI) v0 to v1

Add Events to Your Skill With SMAPI

Configure an Application or Service to Send Messages to Your Skill

ASK CLI and Skill Management API (v0)

Alexa Skills Kit Command Line Interface (ASK CLI) Reference, v0

Skill Management API Operations, v0

Alexa Skills Kit Object Schemas, v0

Alexa Skills English Variants Migration FAQ

Build Skills with the Alexa Skills Kit

Alexa provides a set of built-in capabilities, referred to asskills. For example, Alexas abilities include playing music from multiple providers, answering questions, providing weather forecasts, and querying Wikipedia.

The Alexa Skills Kit lets you teach Alexanew skills. Customers can access these new abilities by asking Alexa questions or making requests. You can build skills that provide users with many different types of abilities. For example, a skill might do any one of the following:

Look up answers to specific questions (

Alexa, ask tide pooler for the high tide today in Seattle.

Challenge the user with puzzles or games (

Control lights and other devices in the home (

Alexa, turn on the living room lights.

Provide audio or text content for a customers flash briefing (

Alexa, give me my flash briefing

What Kind of Skill Do You Want to Create?

The first step in building a new skill is to decidewhat your skill will do. The functionality you want to implement determines how your skill integrates with the Alexa service and what you need to build. The Alexa Skills Kit supports building different types of skills.

A skill that can handle just about any type of request.

Look up information from a web service

Integrate with a web service to order something (order a car from Uber, order a pizza from Dominos Pizza)

Just about anything else you can think of

Custom skill(custom interaction model)

You define the requests the skill can handle (intents) and the words users say to invoke those requests (utterances).

A skill that lets a user control and query cloud-enabled smart home devices such as lights, door locks, cameras, thermostats and smart TVs.

Change the brightness of dimmable lights

Change the color or color temperature of a tunable light

Change the temperature on a thermostat

Query a lock to see if it is currently locked

Smart Home Skill API(pre-built model)

The Smart Home Skill API defines the requests the skill can handle (device directives) and the words users say to invoke those requests (utterances).

A skill that lets a user control cloud-enabled video services.

The Video Skill API defines the requests the skill can handle (device directives) and the words users say to invoke those requests (utterances).

A skill that provides original content for a customers flash briefing.

Flash Briefing Skill API(pre-built model)

The Flash Briefing Skill API defines the words users say to invoke the flash briefing or news request (utterances) and the format of the content so that Alexa can provide it to the customer.

For more details about the differences between different types of skills, seeUnderstand the Different Skill Models.

You create a cloud-based service that handles the requests for the skill type and host it in the cloud. The Alexa service routes incoming requests to the appropriate service.

Different types of skills require different types of services:

For acustom skill, you code either anAWS Lambda functionor aweb service:

AWS Lambda (anAmazon Web Servicesoffering) is a service that lets you run code in the cloud without managing servers. Alexa sends your code user requests and your code can inspect the request, take any necessary actions (such as looking up information online) and then send back a response. You can write Lambda functions in Node.js, Java, Python, or C.

and host it with any cloud hosting provider. The web service must accept requests over HTTPS. In this case, Alexa sends requests to your web service and your service takes any necessary actions and sends back a response. You can write your web service in any language.

Regardless of how you create your service, you also create a custom

For a skill that controls smart home devices such as lights, thermostats, and entertainment devices you can use the Smart Home Skill API. In this case, you develop an AWS Lambda function that accepts device directives from Alexa:

You provide code to handle directives in an AWS Lambda function.

Your skill receives requests in the form of

to control a particular device. Your code then handles the request appropriately (for example, by turning on the requested light or turning up the volume).

All voice interactions with the user are handled by the Smart Home Skill API. You dont need to define the words users say to use the skill.

For a skill that controls video content you can use the Video Skill API. In this case, you develop a lambda function that accepts device directives from Alexa:

You provide code to handle directives in an AWS Lambda function.

Your skill receives requests in the form of

to control a video service. Your code then handles the request appropriately (for example, by playing a movie).

All voice interactions with the user are handled by the Video Skill API. You dont need to define the words users say to use the skill.

For a skill that provides content such as news, lists, or comedy for a customers flash briefing, you can use the Flash Briefing Skill API. In this case, you create the skill in the developer console and configure one or more JSON or RSS feeds that contain the content:

To receive your content as a part of their flash briefing, a customer enables your flash briefing skill in the Alexa app, and turns on one or more content feeds.

All voice interactions with the user are handled by the Flash Briefing Skill API. You dont need to define the words users say to use the skill.

You supply one or more reliable content feeds in RSS or JSON format. The content can be audio content that Alexa plays to the customer, or text content that Alexa reads to the customer. You should own the content or have the rights to distribute it.

If you know what you want to build now, start with one of these:

Or, learn more about the Alexa Skills Kit and how skills work:

Understand the Different Skill Models

Understand How Users Interact with Skills

Amazon Developer Services Agreement

Program Materials License Agreement

Mobile Ad Network Publisher Agreement

Mobile Ad Network Program Participation Requirements

Advertise Your App with Amazon Agreement

LocostUSAcom

Here you can discuss the kits on the market for building a Locost style sportscar.

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