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Seven Keys to Effective Feedback

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Advice, evaluation, gradesnone of these provide the descriptive information that students need to reach their goals. What is true feedbackand how can it improve learning?

Who would dispute the idea that feedback is a good thing? Both common sense and research make it clear: Formative assessment, consisting of lots of feedback and opportunities to use that feedback, enhances performance and achievement.

Yet even John Hattie (2008), whose decades of research revealed that feedback was among the most powerful influences on achievement, acknowledges that he has struggled to understand the concept (p. 173). And many writings on the subject dont even attempt to define the term. To improve formative assessment practices among both teachers and assessment designers, we need to look more closely at just what feedback isand isnt.

The termfeedbackis often used to describe all kinds of comments made after the fact, including advice, praise, and evaluation. But none of these are feedback, strictly speaking.

Basically, feedback is information about how we are doing in our efforts to reach a goal. I hit a tennis ball with the goal of keeping it in the court, and I see where it landsin or out. I tell a joke with the goal of making people laugh, and I observe the audiences reactionthey laugh loudly or barely snicker. I teach a lesson with the goal of engaging students, and I see that some students have their eyes riveted on me while others are nodding off.

Here are some other examples of feedback:

A friend tells me, You know, when you put it that way and speak in that softer tone of voice, it makes me feel better.

A reader comments on my short story, The first few paragraphs kept my full attention. The scene painted was vivid and interesting. But then the dialogue became hard to follow; as a reader, I was confused about who was talking, and the sequence of actions was puzzling, so I became less engaged.

A baseball coach tells me, Each time you swung and missed, you raised your head as you swung so you didnt really have your eye on the ball. On the one you hit hard, you kept your head down and saw the ball.

Note the difference between these three examples and the first three I citedthe tennis stroke, the joke, and the student responses to teaching. In the first group, I only had to take note of the tangible effect of my actions, keeping my goals in mind. No one volunteered feedback, but there was still plenty of feedback to get and use. The second group of examples all involved the deliberate, explicit giving of feedback by other people.

Whether the feedback was in the observable effects or from other people, in every case the information received was not advice, nor was the performance evaluated. No one told me as a performer what to do differently or how good or bad my results were. (You might think that the reader of my writing was judging my work, but look at the words used again: She simply played back the effect my writing had on her as a reader.) Nor did any of the three people tell me what to do (which is what many people erroneously think feedback isadvice). Guidance would be premature; I first need to receive feedback on what I did or didnt do that would warrant such advice.

In all six cases, information was conveyed about the effects of my actions as related to a goal. The information did not include value judgments or recommendations on how to improve. (For examples of information that is often falsely viewed as feedback, see Feedback vs. Advice above and Feedback vs. Evaluation and Grades on p. 15.)

Decades of education research support the idea that by teachinglessand providingmorefeedback, we can produce greater learning (see Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Hattie, 2008; Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Compare the typical lecture-driven course, which often produces less-than-optimal learning, with the peer instruction model developed by Eric Mazur (2009) at Harvard. He hardly lectures at all to his 200 introductory physics students; instead, he gives them problems to think about individually and then discuss in small groups. This system, he writes, provides frequent and continuous feedback (to both the students and the instructor) about the level of understanding of the subject being discussed (p. 51), producing gains in both conceptual understanding of the subject and problem-solving skills. Less teaching, more feedback equals better results.

Whether feedback is just there to be grasped or is provided by another person, helpful feedback is goal-referenced; tangible and transparent; actionable; user-friendly (specific and personalized); timely; ongoing; and consistent.

Effective feedback requires that a person has a goal, takes action to achieve the goal, and receives goal-related information about his or her actions. I told a jokewhy? To make people laugh. I wrote a story to engage the reader with vivid language and believable dialogue that captures the characters feelings. I went up to bat to get a hit. If I am not clear on my goals or if I fail to pay attention to them, I cannot get helpful feedback (nor am I likely to achieve my goals).

Information becomes feedback if, and only if, I am trying to cause something and the information tells me whether I am on track or need to change course. If some joke or aspect of my writingisnt workinga revealing, nonjudgmental phraseI need to know.

Note that in everyday situations, goals are often implicit, although fairly obvious to everyone. I dont need to announce when telling the joke that my aim is to make you laugh. But in school, learners are often unclear about the specific goal of a task or lesson, so it is crucial to remind them about the goal and the criteria by which they should self-assess. For example, a teacher might say,

The point of this writing task is for you to make readers laugh. So, when rereading your draft or getting feedback from peers, ask, How funny is this? Where might it be funnier?

As you prepare a table poster to display the findings of your science project, remember that the aim is to interest people in your work as well as to describe the facts you discovered through your experiment. Self-assess your work against those two criteria using these rubrics. The science fair judges will do likewise.

Any useful feedback system involves not only a clear goal, but also tangible results related to the goal. People laugh, chuckle, or dont laugh at each joke; students are highly attentive, somewhat attentive, or inattentive to my teaching.

Even as little children, we learn from such tangible feedback. Thats how we learn to walk; to hold a spoon; and to understand that certain words magically yield food, drink, or a change of clothes from big people. The best feedback is so tangible that anyone who has a goal can learn from it.

Alas, far too much instructional feedback is opaque, as revealed in a true story a teacher told me years ago. A student came up to her at years end and said, Miss Jones, you kept writing this same word on my English papers all year, and I still dont know what it means. Whats the word? she asked. Vag-oo, he said. (The word wasvague!)

Sometimes, even when the information is tangible and transparent, the performers dont obtain iteither because they dont look for it or because they are too busy performing to focus on the effects. In sports, novice tennis players or batters often dont realize that theyre taking their eyes off the ball; they often protest, in fact, when that feedback is given. (Constantly yelling Keep your eye on the ball! rarely works.) And we have all seen how new teachers are sometimes so busy concentrating on teaching that they fail to notice that few students are listening or learning.

Thats why, in addition to feedback from coaches or other able observers, video or audio recordings can help us perceive things that we may not perceive as we perform; and by extension, such recordings help us learn to look for difficult-to-perceive but vital information. I recommend that all teachers videotape their own classes at least once a month. It was a transformative experience for me when I did it as a beginning teacher. Concepts that had been crystal clear to me when I was teaching seemed opaque and downright confusing on tapecaptured also in the many quizzical looks of my students, which I had missed in the moment.

Effective feedback is concrete, specific, and useful; it providesactionableinformation. Thus, Good job! and You did that wrong andB+are not feedback at all. We can easily imagine the learners asking themselves in response to these comments, Whatspecificallyshould I do more or less of next time, based on this information? No idea. They dont know what was good or wrong about what they did.

Actionable feedback must also be accepted by the performer. Many so-called feedback situations lead to arguments because the givers are not sufficiently descriptive; they jump to an inference from the data instead of simply presenting the data. For example, a supervisor may make the unfortunate but common mistake of stating that many students were bored in class. Thats a judgment, not an observation. It would have been far more useful and less debatable had the supervisor said something like, I counted ongoing inattentive behaviors in 12 of the 25 students once the lecture was underway. The behaviors included texting under desks, passing notes, and making eye contact with other students. However, after the small-group exercise began, I saw such behavior in only one student.

Such care in offering neutral, goal-related facts is the whole point of the clinical supervision of teaching and of good coaching more generally. Effective supervisors and coaches work hard to carefully observe and comment on what they observed, based on a clear statement of goals. Thats why I always ask when visiting a class, What would you like me to look for and perhaps count? In my experience as a teacher of teachers, I have always found such pure feedback to be accepted and welcomed. Effective coaches also know that in complex performance situations, actionable feedback about what went right is as important as feedback about what didnt work.

Even if feedback is specific and accurate in the eyes of experts or bystanders, it is not of much value if the user cannot understand it or is overwhelmed by it. Highly technical feedback will seem odd and confusing to a novice. Describing a baseball swing to a 6-year-old in terms of torque and other physics concepts will not likely yield a better hitter. Too much feedback is also counterproductive; better to help the performer concentrate on only one or two key elements of performance than to create a buzz of information coming in from all sides.

Expert coaches uniformly avoid overloading performers with too much or too technical information. They tell the performers one important thing they noticed that, if changed, will likely yield immediate and noticeable improvement (I was confused about who was talking in the dialogue you wrote in this paragraph). They dont offer advice until they make sure the performer understands the importance of what they saw.

In most cases, the sooner I get feedback, the better. I dont want to wait for hours or days to find out whether my students were attentive and whether they learned, or which part of my written story works and which part doesnt. I say in most cases to allow for situations like playing a piano piece in a recital. I dont want my teacher or the audience barking out feedback as I perform. Thats why it is more precise to say that good feedback is timely rather than immediate.

A great problem in education, however, is untimely feedback. Vital feedback on key performances often comes days, weeks, or even months after the performancethink of writing and handing in papers or getting back results on standardized tests. As educators, we should work overtime to figure out ways to ensure that students get more timely feedback and opportunities to use it while the attempt and effects are still fresh in their minds.

Before you say that this is impossible, remember that feedback does not need to come only from the teacher, or even from people at all. Technology is one powerful toolpart of the power of computer-assisted learning is unlimited, timely feedback and opportunities to use it. Peer review is another strategy for managing the load to ensure lots of timely feedback; its essential, however, to train students to do small-group peer review to high standards, without immature criticisms or unhelpful praise.

Adjusting our performance depends on not only receiving feedback but also having opportunities to use it. What makes any assessment in educationformativeis not merely that it precedes summative assessments, but that the performer has opportunities, if results are less than optimal, to reshape the performance to better achieve the goal. In summative assessment, the feedback comes too late; the performance is over.

Thus, the more feedback I can receive in real time, the better my ultimate performance will be. This is how all highly successful computer games work. If you play Angry Birds, Halo, Guitar Hero, or Tetris, you know that the key to substantial improvement is that the feedback is both timely and ongoing. When you fail, you can immediately start oversometimes even right where you left offto get another opportunity to receive and learn from the feedback. (This powerfulfeedback loopis also user-friendly. Games are built to reflect and adapt to our changing need, pace, and ability to process information.)

It is telling, too, that performers are often judged on their ability to adjust in light of feedback. The ability to quickly adapt ones performance is a mark of all great achievers and problem solvers in a wide array of fields. Or, as many little league coaches say, The problem is not making errors; you will all miss many balls in the field, and thats part of learning. The problem is when you dont learn from the errors.

To be useful, feedback must be consistent. Clearly, performers can only adjust their performance successfully if the information fed back to them is stable, accurate, and trustworthy. In education, that means teachers have to be on the same page about what high-quality work is. Teachers need to look at student work together, becoming more consistent over time and formalizing their judgments in highly descriptive rubrics supported by anchor products and performances. By extension, if we want student-to-student feedback to be more helpful, students have to be trained to be consistent the same way we train teachers, using the same exemplars and rubrics.

In light of these key characteristics of helpful feedback, how can schools most effectively use feedback as part of a system of formative assessment? The key is to gear feedback to long-term goals.

Lets look at how this works in sports. My daughter runs the mile in track. At the end of each lap in races and practice races, the coaches yell outsplit times(the times for each lap) and bits of feedback (Youre not swinging your arms! Youre on pace for 5:15), followed by advice (Pick it upyou need to take two seconds off this next lap to get in under 5:10!).

My daughter and her teammates are getting feedback (and advice) about how they are performing now compared with their final desired time. My daughters goal is to run a 5:00 mile. She has already run 5:09. Her coach is telling her that at the pace she just ran in the first lap, she is unlikely even to meet her best time so far this season, never mind her long-term goal. Then, he tells her something descriptive about her current performance (shes not swinging her arms) and gives her a brief piece of concrete advice (take two seconds off the next lap) to make achievement of the goal more likely.

The ability to improve ones result depends on the ability to adjust ones pace in light of ongoing feedback that measures performance against a concrete, long-term goal. But this isnt what most school district pacing guides and grades on formative tests tell you. They yield a grade against recent objectives taught, not useful feedback against thefinalperformance standards. Instead of informing teachers and students at an interim date whether they are on track to achieve a desired level of student performance by the end of the school year, the guide and the test grade just provide a schedule for the teacher to follow in delivering content and a grade on that content. Its as if at the end of the first lap of the mile race, My daughters coach simply yelled out,B+on that lap!

The advice for how to change this sad situation should be clear: Score student work in the fall and winter against spring standards, use more pre-and post-assessments to measure progress toward these standards, and do the item analysis to note what each student needs to work on for better future performance.

Although the universal teacher lament that theres no time for such feedback is understandable, remember that no time to give and use feedback actually means no time to cause learning. As we have seen, research shows thatlessteaching plusmorefeedback is the key to achieving greater learning. And there are numerous waysthrough technology, peers, and other teachersthat students can get the feedback they need.

So try it out. Less teaching, more feedback. Less feedback that comes only from you, and more tangible feedback designed into the performance itself. And, of course, send me some feedback on this article .

›You need more examples in your report.›You might want to use a lighter baseball bat.›You should have included some Essential Questions in your unit plan.These three statements are not feedback; theyre advice. Such advice out of the blue seems at best tangential and at worst unhelpful and annoying. Unless it is preceded by descriptive feedback, the natural response of the performer is to wonder, Why are you suggesting this?As coaches, teachers, and parents, we too often jump right to advice without first ensuring that the learner has sought, grasped, and tentatively accepted the feedback on which the advice is based. By doing so, we often unwittingly end up unnerving learners. Students become increasingly insecure about their own judgment and dependent on the advice of expertsand therefore in a panic about what to do when varied advice comes from different people or no advice is available at all.If your ratio of advice to feedback is too high, try asking the learner, Given the feedback, do you have some ideas about how to improve? This approach will build greater autonomy and confidence over the long haul. Once they are no longer rank novices, performers can often self-advise if asked to.

›Good work!›This is a weak paper.›You got aCon your presentation.›Im so pleased by your poster!These comments make a value judgment. They rate, evaluate, praise, or criticize what was done. There is little or no feedback hereno actionable information about what occurred. As performers, we only know that someone else placed a high or low value on what we did.How might we recast these comments to be useful feedback? Tip: Always add a mental colon after each statement of value. For example,• Good work: Your use of words was more precise in this paper than in the last one, and I saw the scenes clearly in my minds eye.• This is a weak paper: Almost from the first sentence, I was confused as to your initial thesis and the evidence you provide for it. In the second paragraph you propose a different thesis, and in the third paragraph you dont offer evidence, just beliefs.Youll soon find that you can drop the evaluative language; it serves no useful function.The most ubiquitous form of evaluation, grading, is so much a part of the school landscape that we easily overlook its utter uselessness as actionable feedback. Grades are here to stay, no doubtbut that doesnt mean we should rely on them as a major source of feedback.

Grant Wigginsprovides additional insights about feedback at ASCDs Inservice blog:

Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.). (2000).How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Hattie, J. (2008).Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge.

Marzano, R., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. (2001).Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Mazur, E. (2009, January 2). Farewell, lecture?Science, 323, 5051.

Grant Wigginsis president of Authentic Education in Hopewell, New Jersey; He is the author ofEducative Assessment: Designing Assessments to Inform and Improve Student Performance(Jossey-Bass, 1998) and coauthor, with Jay McTighe, of many books in ASCDs Understanding by Design series.

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abhorrentcausing or deserving strong dislike or hatred

embolizationthe process by which a blood vessel or organ is obstructed by a material mass

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These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word feedback. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors.Send us feedback.

:helpful information or criticism that is given to someone to say what can be done to improve a performance, product, etc.

:something (such as information or electricity) that is returned to a machine, system, or process

:an annoying and unwanted sound caused by signals being returned to an electronic sound system

helpful information or criticism given to someone to indicate what can be done to improve something

the return to the input of part of the output of a machine, system, or process (as for producing changes in an electronic circuit that improve performance or in an automatic control device that provide self-corrective action)

the partial reversion of the effects of a process to its source or to a preceding stage

the return to a point of origin of evaluative or corrective information about an action or process

Seewords that rhyme withfeedbackSpanish Central:Translation offeedbackNglish:Translation offeedbackfor Spanish speakersBritannica English:Translation offeedbackfor Arabic article aboutfeedback

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abhorrentcausing or deserving strong dislike or hatred

embolizationthe process by which a blood vessel or organ is obstructed by a material mass

oleaginousmarked by an offensively ingratiating manner or quality

pansexualsexual desire or attraction…not limited to a particular gender identity or sexual orientation

symbiotean organism living in symbiosis

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Giving Feedback

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Performance review. Does the mere mention of this event make your heart sink?

Employees and managers the world over dread this ritual and therein lays the main problem: We have institutionalized the giving and receiving of feedback. We save up our comments and document all the things we note about a persons performance. And then, like a big cat ready to pounce, the manager brings a hapless employee into the office and springs a years worth of constructive criticism onto him or her.

No wonder why this process is so unnerving and fear provoking. This is exactly the wrong emotional environment in which to discuss performance, introduce suggestions for improvement, and talk about goals for the future. This is a shame, because giving and receiving feedback is key to engaging your people and keeping them on track.

When done in the right way and with the right intentions, feedback can lead to outstanding performance. Employees have to know what they are doing well and not so well. For them to really hear your thoughts and suggestions on ways to improve, though, that feedback has to be delivered carefully and frequently.

Giving feedback is a skill. And like all skills, it takes practice to get it right. So, in this article and in the video, below, well give some tips on how you can give feedback constructively and effectively.

Watch this video to discover how to deliver feedback effectively.

We talk generally about feedback between a manager/supervisor and employee. However, feedback can, and should, be given up, down, and laterally. The same principles apply.

Before giving feedback, remind yourselfwhyyou are doing it. The purpose of giving feedback is to improve the situation or the persons performance. You wont accomplish that by being harsh, critical or offensive.

Youll likely get much more from people when your approach is positive and focused on improvement. Thats not to say feedback always has to be good, but it should be fair and balanced. Use tools like theFeedback Matrixand theLosada Ratioto help you get the exact balance right. (It should be noted tha,t though the statistics behind the Losada Ratio are in doubt, the principle is not.)

The closer to the event you address the issue, the better. Feedback isnt about surprising someone, so the sooner you do it, the more the person will be expecting it.

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Think of it this way: its much easier to provide feedback about a single, one-hour job that hasnt been done properly than it is to do so about a whole year of failed, one-hour jobs.

However, there is an exception if the situation involved is highly emotional. If this is the case, wait until everyone has calmed down before you engage in feedback. You cant risk letting yourself get worked up or you may something that you will regret later.

Feedback is a process that requires constant attention. When something needs to be said, say it. People then know where they stand all the time and there will be few surprises. Also, problems dont get out of hand. Itsnota once-a-year or a once-every-three-month event. Though this may be the timing of formal feedback; informal, simple feedback should be given much more often than this perhaps every week or even every day, depending on the situation.

With frequent, informal feedback like this, nothing said during formal feedback sessions should be unexpected, surprising or particularly difficult.

You dont want to read a script, but you do need to be clear about you are going to say. This will help you to stay on track and stick to the issues.

Tell the person exactly what he needs to improve. This ensures that you stick to facts and there is less room for ambiguity.

If you tell someone that she acted unprofessionally, what does that mean exactly? Was she too loud, too friendly, too casual, too flippant or too poorly dressed?

Remember to stick to what you know first hand: youll quickly find yourself on shaky ground if you start giving feedback based on other peoples views.

Try not to exaggerate to make a point. Avoid words like never, all, and always because the person will likely get defensive. Always discuss the direct impact of the behavior and dont get personal or seek to blame.

While public recognition is appreciated, public scrutiny is not.

Establish a safe place to talk where you wont be interrupted or overheard.

Give feedback fromyourperspective . This way you avoid labeling the person.

Say, I was angry and hurt when you criticized my report in front of my boss rather than You were insensitive yesterday.

A feedback session should discuss no more than two issues. Any more than that and you risk the person feeling attacked and demoralized.

You should also stick to behaviors the he can actually change or influence.

A good rule is start off with something positive. This helps put the person at ease. It will also allow her to see what success looks like and what steps she needs to take next time to get it right.

Try to end on a high note, too. Otherwise, she may be left feeling despondent and worthless.

Many people tend to overdo this and end up sandwiching the constructive feedback between too many positives. Then the takeaway message becomes, Gee, Im doing really well, instead of Im good at communicating with customers, but I need to bring my interpersonal skills with my co-workers up to that same level.

Make sure you both know what needs to be done to improve the situation. The main message should be that you care and want to help the person grow and develop. Set goals and make plans to monitor and evaluate his progress. Use theSMARTacronym and define specific steps and milestones, or theGROW modelto motivate him to deliver the change that you want.

You may not agree on everything, so it is a good idea to ask the person to give her perspective. Use phrases like, What is your reaction to this? or Is this a fair representation of what happened?

Listen actively to what she has to say and try to get her to offer some suggestions for improvement. This way she has an opportunity to own the solution and will be more likely to follow through with it. To avoid sounding like youre preaching, stay away from words like good, bad, must, need to, etc.

The whole purpose of feedback is to improve performance. You need to measure whether or not that is happening and then make adjustments as you go. Be sure to document your conversations and discuss what is working and what needs to be modified.

Its also important that you actively seek feedback fromyourboss, colleagues, and customers. See our article onGetting Feedbackfor more on this.

Feedback is a two way street. You need to know how to give it effectively and how to receive it constructively.

When you make a conscious choice to give and receive feedback on a regular basis you demonstrate that it is a powerful means of personal development and positive change.

Done properly, feedback need not be agonizing, demoralizing or daunting, and the more practice you get the better you will become at it. It may never be your favorite means of communicating with your team members, co-workers or your boss, but it does have the potential to make your workplace a much more productive and harmonious place to be.

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Thank you for your feedback. As an academic article, the link you provided is very revealing in the impact of feedback, both on the learner and the feedback provider.

The article holds some of the commonly held beliefs we have about feedback. It may be surprising to learn that current research challenges some of these beliefs (eg the sandwich approach; timing etc). Have a read of Molloy & Bouds article – see link.

Thanks for that feedback on our article on feedback! 😉

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How Good Are Your Communication Skills?

Developing a Communications Charter

The Communication Strategy Framework

How to Communicate Organizational Uncertainty

Developing Good Customer Relationships

The STREET*CREDS Model For Savvy Conversations

How Good Are Your Listening Skills?

How to Deliver On-the-Spot Feedback

The Situation Behavior Impact Feedback Tool

How to Get Your Voice Heard in Meetings

Avoiding Cognitive Bias in Meetings

How to Run Effective Virtual Meetings

How Good Are Your Presentation Skills?

The Presentation Planning Checklist

Creating Effective Presentation Visuals

AIDA: Attention-Interest-Desire-Action

Using Instant Messaging (IM) Effectively

Eight Strategies for Effective Email

Negotiation, Persuasion and Influence

How Strong Are Your Influencing Skills?

Georges and Guenzis Customer Trust Model

Lewicki and Hiams Negotiation Matrix

How to Tell Your Bosses Theyre Wrong

How to Handle Social Media Criticism

Bell and Harts Eight Causes of Conflict

How to Deal With Unrealistic Customers

How to Make High-Quality Connections

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Leaving feedback for sellers

Leaving feedback is a great way to rate your buying experience with a seller on eBay.

Every time you buy something on eBay, you have the opportunity to leave positive, neutral or negative feedback about your transaction. You can also rate the sellers performance on things like communication andshipping costs.

Sometimes, if you leave neutral or negative feedback, your seller might dispute it. You can find out why in our guides below, as well as learning about how to view and change your feedback. Youll also find information on our rules about using feedback constructively and fairly.

Find out why a seller may dispute your feedback and how to resolve it.

Learn how to view, change, and follow up on feedback you left for a seller on eBay.

Read everything you need to know about our feedback policy.

After you make a purchase, well remind you via email to leave feedback for your seller.

You can also leave feedback through yourpurchase history- opens in new window or tab. If you havent already, youll see the option to leave feedback.

Select an overall feedback rating positive, neutral, or negative

Rate aspects of the transaction including whether the item arrived on time, the accuracy of the item description, shipping costs, and the sellers communication

Write a comment about your experience

By leaving feedback for a seller, youre telling them what you think. Equally important, youre letting other buyers know about your experience. Your feedback combines with others to build a rich base of knowledge to help to find the best sellers every time you shop.

When you look at a listing, youll find the sellers positive feedback score beneath their username, listed as a percentage. For example, if a seller has a score of 99.5%, it means that 99.5% of buyers left positive feedback about their experience with that seller.

For every transaction, buyers and sellers can choose to rate each other by leaving feedback. After each transaction, you can leave a positive, negative, or a neutral rating, plus a short comment to rate your experience with the seller.

We use these ratings to determine feedback scores. In most cases, members receive:

You should leave feedback for each sale. As for your own feedback score, keep in mind that we calculate this differently depending on whether the sales occurred in the same week. For feedback purposes, we define a week as Monday through Sunday, Pacific Time.

If the sales occurred in different weeks each rating can affect a feedback score by 1 point. A positive rating raises a feedback score by 1 point. A negative rating lowers a sellers feedback score by 1 point.

If the sales occurred in the same week we raise your feedback score by a total of 1 point, regardless of the number of positive ratings you received from the seller within the week.

Negative feedback becomes a permanent part of a sellers record, and can harm their reputation and their business. If possible, you should try to resolve any issues you have with a seller before you leave negative feedback.

If you decide to leave negative feedback, make sure its fair, factual, and relates specifically to your transaction with the seller. Remember, feedback is about your experience with the seller its not a review of the product you bought.

Sellers often respond to negative feedback and may get in touch with you to try to resolve the issue.

In some situations, we may remove or adjust feedback for transaction defects. Learn more about ourDefect removal policy.

Additionally, if we suspend a member, well remove any neutral or negative feedback they left for others. Well also remove feedback from a buyer if they fail to pay for an item.

Only registered eBay members can leave feedback.

Feedback is an opportunity to leave an honest comment about your experience with a seller, or thank a customer for their purchase.

If youre having an issue with an eBay seller, try contacting them directly to resolve your problem. If you cant work things out, were always here to step in and help.

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What is FeedbackFive?

Over 90% of Amazon buyers typically fail to leave feedback. In addition, customers with a negative experience are more motivated to leave feedback. What is your strategy for getting more feedback on Amazon?

FeedbackFive is the industrys leading feedback management tool, designed specifically for Amazon merchants. Developed byeComEngine, LLC, FeedbackFive gives Amazon sellers the power to proactively manage their feedback scores. Merchants use our software-as-a-service (SAAS) toautomatically solicit feedbackfrom customers, review negative and neutral feedbacks received, monitor trends,request removal of negative feedbacks, and evenmanage Amazon Product Reviews. If youre searchingforAmazon feedback software, look no further than FeedbackFive.

Within seconds after signing up, your FeedbackFive account goes to work and automatically solicits feedback from customers. Based on your preferences, you can tell FeedbackFive how often and for which products to solicit Amazon feedback. Set it once, and watch the feedback roll in.

Getting your customers to leave feedback on Amazon is a breeze, thanks to FeedbackFives automatic solicitation and timing rules. Customize your timing preferences so that customers receive emails at the time when they are most likely to open the message, click through, and leave feedback.

In addition to managing feedback, FeedbackFive allows merchants to manage Amazon Product Reviews. Sellers can build custom solicitation rules using our Email Campaign feature. Merchants can even upload a list of ASINs that they wish to track. Receive real-time email alerts to be notified of new reviews.

The sellers with the most positive feedback tend to do the best on Amazon. Take control of your online reputation and reap the rewards of greater bottom line performance. Win the buy box more often and beat your competitors by maintaining a stellar Amazon seller rating.

In traditional brick-and-mortar stores, consumers can interact with staff, inspect the goods and provide immediate feedback about their experience. If they need to return or exchange an item, they will do it in person and likely explain any issues they encountered.

In the online retail world, measuring customer satisfaction can be a little more complicated. Despite the convenience eCommerce transactions offer, it can be difficult for buyers to know exactly what they are getting.

Automatic returns and returnless refunds have been popular seller forum topics for the better part of a year.

While the chatter continues among sellers, at eComEngine we believe these changes will prove to be mutually beneficial for shoppers and sellers alike. By streamlining the return and refund management process, , Inc. (Amazon) has actually given merchants a golden opportunity to further delight customers and, in turn, enhance their seller reputations.

Soliciting feedback is crucial for Amazon businesses, but its not as straightforward as it may seem. If youve ever reached out to customers to ask them to share their opinions, you know that the wrong kind of message can be easy for them to ignore (or forget).

Finding the right approach may take some trial and error, but the effort you invest can really pay off. We realize that your time is valuable so weve come up with another way to make testing easier than ever. Our newest campaign rule Send for Orders Ending in can help you meet your goals without taking hours out of your day.

As both a consumer and an entrepreneur, you know that reviews matter. In fact, the quality and number of ratings an Amazon seller receives can substantially affect their success. In business, you will always have customers who had a bad experience and, of…

Amazons trademark is used under license from , Inc. or its affiliates.

Audio feedback

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Problems playing this file? Seemedia help.

Block diagram of the signal-flow for a common feedback loop.

Audio feedback(also known asacoustic feedback, simply asfeedback, or theLarsen effect) is a special kind ofpositive loop gainwhich occurs when a sound loop exists between an audio input (for example, amicrophoneorguitar pickup) and an audio output (for example, a). In this example, a signal received by the microphone isamplifiedand passed out of the loudspeaker. The sound from the loudspeaker can then be received by the microphone again, amplified further, and then passed out through the loudspeaker again. Thefrequencyof the resulting sound is determined by resonance frequencies in the microphone, amplifier, and loudspeaker, the acoustics of the room, the directional pick-up and emission patterns of the microphone and loudspeaker, and the distance between them. For smallPA systemsthe sound is readily recognized as a loud squeal or screech. The principles of audio feedback were first discovered by Danish scientistSøren Absalon Larsen, hence the name Larsen Effect.

Feedback is almost always considered undesirable when it occurs with a singers or public speakers microphone at an event using asound reinforcement systemorPA systemAudio engineersuse highly directionalcardioidmicrophones and various electronic devices, such as equalizers and, since the 1990s, automatic feedback detection devices to prevent these unwanted squeals or screeching sounds, which detract from the audiences enjoyment of the event. On the other hand, since the 1960s,electric guitarplayers inrock musicbands using loudguitar amplifiersspeaker cabinetsanddistortioneffects have intentionally created guitar feedback to create different sounds including long, high-pitched sustained tones that cannot be produced using standard playing techniques. The sound of guitar feedback is considered to be a desirable musical effect inheavy metal musichardcore punkandgrungeJimi Hendrixwas an innovator in the intentional use of guitar feedback, alongsideeffects unitssuch as theUnivibeandwah-wah pedalin hisguitar solosto create unique sound effects and musical sounds.

The conditions for feedback follow theBarkhausen stability criterion, namely that, with sufficiently high gain, a stableoscillationcan (and usually will) occur in a feedback loop whose frequency is such that the phase delay is anintegermultiple of 360degreesand thegainat that frequency is equal to 1. If the small signal gain is greater than 1 for some frequency then the system will start to oscillate at that frequency because noise at that frequency will be amplified. Sound will be produced without anyone actually playing. The sound level will increase until the output startsclipping, reducing the loop gain to exactly unity. This is the principle upon whichelectronic oscillatorsare based; although in that case the feedback loop is purely electronic, the principle is the same. If the gain is large, but slightly less than 1, then high-pitched slowly decaying feedback tones will be created, but only when at least some input sound is already being sent through the system, such as through a microphone.

Early academic work on acoustical feedback was done by Dr.C. Paul Boner. Boner reasoned that when feedback happened, it did so at one precise frequency. He also reasoned that it could be stopped by inserting a very narrownotch filterat that frequency in theloudspeakersignal chain.[2]He worked withGifford White, founder ofWhite Instrumentsto hand craft notch filters for specific feedback frequencies in specific rooms. Boner was responsible for establishing basic theories of acoustic feedback, room-ring modes, and room-sound system equalizing techniques.[3]

To maximizegain before feedback, the amount of sound energy that is fed back to the microphones must be reduced as much as is practical. As sound pressure falls off with 1/r with respect to the distance r in free space, or up to a distance known as reverberation distance in closed spaces (and the energy density with 1/r²), it is important to keep the microphones at a large enough distance from the speaker systems. As well, microphones should not be positioned in front of speakers and individuals using mics should be asked to avoid pointing the microphone at speaker enclosures.

Additionally, the loudspeakers and microphones should have non-uniformdirectivityand should stay out of the maximumsensitivityof each other, ideally at a direction of cancellation.Public addressspeakers often achieve directivity in the mid and treble region (and goodefficiency) via horn systems. Sometimes the woofers have acardioidcharacteristic.

Professional setups circumvent feedback by placing the main speakers a far distance from the band or artist, and then having several smaller speakers known asmonitorspointing back at each band member, but in the opposite direction to that in which the microphones are pointing. This allows independent control of the sound pressure levels for the audience and the performers.

If monitors are oriented at 180 degrees to the microphones that are their sources, the microphones should have acardioidpickup pattern. Super- or hypercardioid patterns are suitable if the monitor speakers are located at a different angle on the back side of the microphones, they also better cancel reverberations coming from elsewhere. Almost all microphones for sound reinforcement are directional.

Almost always, the natural frequency responses ofsound reinforcement systemsis not ideally flat. This leads to acoustical feedback at the frequency with the highest loop gain, which may be much higher than the average gain over all frequencies (resonance). It is therefore helpful to apply some form ofequalizationto reduce the gain of this frequency.

Feedback can be reduced manually byringing outa sound system prior to a performance. The sound engineer can increase the level of a microphone or guitar pickup until feedback occurs. The engineer can then attenuate the relevant frequency on an equalizer preventing feedback at that frequency but allowing sufficient volume at other frequencies. Many professional sound engineers can identify feedback frequencies by ear but others use a real time analyzer to identify the ringing frequency.

To avoid feedback, automatic anti-feedback devices can be used. (In the marketplace these go by the name feedback destroyer or feedback eliminator.) Some of these work by shifting the frequency slightly, with this upshift resulting in a chirp-sound instead of a howling sound of unaddressed feedback. Other devices use sharp notch-filters to filter out offending frequencies. Adaptive algorithms are often used to automatically tune these notch filters.

To intentionally create feedback, anelectric guitarplayer needs aguitar amplifierand a loudspeakercabinet, with very high gain (amplification) and/or the guitar brought near the speaker. The guitarist then allows the open strings to vibrate freely and brings the guitar close to thespeaker enclosureof the guitar amp. The use ofalso facilitates the creation of intentional feedback.

A deliberate use of acoustic feedback was pioneered byBluesandRocknRollguitarists such asWillie JohnsonJohnny WatsonandLink Wray. According toAllMusicRichie Unterberger, the very first use of feedback on a commercial rock record is the introduction of the songI Feel Finebythe Beatles, recorded in 1964.[4]Jay Hodgson agrees that it was the first chart-topper to showcase feedback distortion, created byJohn Lennonleaning a semi-acoustic guitar against an amplifier.[5]The Whos 1965 hitsAnyway, Anyhow, AnywhereandMy Generationfeatured feedback manipulation byPete Townshend, with an extended solo in the former and the shaking of his guitar in front of the amplifier to create a throbbing noise in the latter.Canned Heats Fried Hockey Boogie (off of their 1968 albumBoogie with Canned Heat) also featured guitar feedback produced byHenry Vestineduring his solo to create a highly amplified distorted boogie style of feedback. In 1963, the teenageBrian Mayand his father custom-built his signature guitarRed Special, which was purposely designed to feed back.[6][7]

Feedback was used extensively after 1965 bythe Monks,[8]Jefferson Airplanethe Velvet Undergroundand theGrateful Dead, who included in many of their live shows a segment namedFeedback, a several-minutes long feedback-driven improvisation. Feedback has since become a striking characteristic of rock music, aselectric guitarplayers such asJeff Beck, Pete Townshend,Dave DaviesSteve MarriottandJimi Hendrixdeliberately induced feedback by holding their guitars close to theamplifiers speakerLou Reedcreated his 1975 albumMetal Machine Musicentirely from loops of feedback played at various speeds. An example of feedback can be heard on Hendrixs performance of Can You See Me? at theMonterey Pop Festival. The entire guitar solo was created using amplifier feedback.[9]

In addition to I Feel Fine, feedback was used on the introduction to songs includingJimi HendrixFoxy Lady, the BeatlesIts All Too Much, HendrixsCrosstown TrafficDavid BowieLittle Wonderthe Strokess New York City Cops,Ben Folds FiveFairMidnight Juggernautss Road To Recovery,Nirvanas Radio Friendly Unit Shifter,the Jesus and Mary Chains Tumbledown andCatchfirethe Stone RosesWaterfallPorno for Pyross Tahitian Moon,ToolStinkfist, andthe Cures Prayer For Rain.[10]Examples of feedback combined with a quick volume swell used as a transition includeWeezerMy Name Is JonasandSay It Aint So; The StrokesReptilia, New York City Cops, andJuicebox; as well as numerous tracks byMeshuggahand Tool.[11]

Cacophonous feedbackfade-outsending a song are most often used to generate rather than relieve tension, often cross-faded too after a thematic and musical release. Examples includeModwheelmoods remix of Nine Inch Nails The Great Destroyer; and the Jesus and Mary Chains Teenage Lust, Tumbledown,Catchfire, Sundown, and Frequency.[12]

Though closed circuit feedback was a prominent feature in many early experimentalelectronic musiccompositions, it was contemporary American composerRobert Ashleywho first used acoustic feedback as sound material in his workThe Wolfman(1964).Steve Reichmakes extensive use of audio feedback in his workPendulum Music(1968) by swinging a series of microphones back and forth in front of their corresponding amplifiers.[13]Hugh Davies[14]andAlvin Lucier[15]both use feedback in their works. More recent examples can be found in the work of for example Lara Stanic,[16]Paul Craenen,[17]Anne Wellmer,[18]Adam Basanta,[19]Lesley Flanigan,[20]Ronald Boersen[21]and Erfan Abdi.[22].ofFratresusing theno-mixerinput technique.

Pitched melodies may be created entirely from feedback through changing the angle between a guitar and amplifier after establishing a feedback loop. Examples includeToolJambiRobert Fripps guitar onDavid BowieHeroes(album version), andJimi HendrixThird Stone From The Sunand his live performance ofWild Thingat theMonterey Pop Festival.[23]

Fripp [stood] in the right place with his volume up at the right level and getting feedback…Fripp had a technique in those days where he measured the distance between the guitar and the speaker where each note would feed back. For instance, an A would feed back maybe at about four feet from the speaker, whereas a G would feed back maybe three and a half feet from it. He had a strip that they would place on the floor, and when he was playing the note F sharp he would stand on the strips F sharp point and F sharp would feed back better. He really worked this out to a fine science, and we were playing this at a terrific level in the studio, too.

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Audio feedback became a signature feature of many underground rock bands during the 1980s. Americanmelded the rock-feedback tradition with a compositional/classical approach (notably covering Reichs Pendulum Music), and guitarist/producerSteve Albinis groupBig Blackalso worked controlled feedback into the makeup of their songs. With thealternative rockmovement of the 1990s, feedback again saw a surge in popular usage by suddenly mainstream acts likeNirvana, theRed Hot Chili PeppersRage Against the Machineandthe Smashing Pumpkins.

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The Boss DF-2 Super Feedbacker and Distortion pedal (on the left) helps electric guitarists to create feedback effects.

The principle of feedback is used in many guitar sustain devices. Examples include handheld devices like theEBow, built-in guitar pickups that increase the instruments sonic sustain, string drivers mounted on a stand such as theGuitar Resonator, and sonic transducers mounted on the head of a guitar. Intended closed-circuit feedback can also be created by aneffects unit, such as a delay pedal or effect fed back into amixing console. The feedback can be controlled by using the fader to determine a volume level. The Boss DF-2 Super Feedbacker and Distortion pedal is an electroniceffect unitthat helps electric guitarists to create feedback effects.

, p.118.ISBN978-1-4411-5607-5.

Behavior of Sound System Response Immediately Below Feedback, CP Boner, J. Audio Eng. Soc, 1966

Operator Adjustable Equalizers: An Overview.

Unterberger, RichieI Feel Fine song review,

Hey, whats that sound: Homemade guitarsThe Guardian. Retrieved August 17, 2011

Brian May InterviewThe Music Biz (1992). Retrieved August 17, 2011

Shaw, Thomas Edward and Anita Klemke.

Black Monk Time: a book about the monks. Reno: Carson Street Publishing, 1995.

can you see me by jimi hendrix. YouTube

Between Air and Electricity – Microphones and Loudspeakers as Musical Instruments

. Bloomsbury Academic.ISBN978-1-5013-2760-5.

van Eck, Cathy.Small Movements by Adam Basanta.

van Eck, Cathy.Speaker Feedback Instruments by Lesley Flanigan.

van Eck, Cathy.Sound in a Jar by Ronald Boersen.

van Eck, Cathy.Points of Contact by Erfan Abdi.

Buskin, Richard (October 2004). Classic Tracks: Heroes,

Sound Improving Means and Method, U.S. Patent No. 3,624,298

C. Paul Boner, PhD., early pioneer in studying feedback.

Troxel, Dana (October 2005).Understanding Acoustic Feedback & Suppressors.

Articles needing additional references from March 2013

All articles needing additional references

This page was last edited on 20 April 2018, at 17:26.

Text is available under the; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to theTerms of UseandPrivacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of theWikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Feedback profiles

Feedback profiles allow you to see how eBay members have been rated by the other eBay users that theyve traded with.

Along with a members overall feedback score, the feedback profile page also shows what percentage of a members ratings have been positive, recent feedback, detailed seller ratings and any bid retractions. You can also find out how long someone has been an eBay member.

You can view a members feedback profile including your own by selecting the number in brackets next to their username. This number is their current feedback score.

If you know the members username, you can also see their feedback profile using theFind a member- opens in new window or tabpage. Just enter their username or email address and selectSearch.

A feedback score of at least 10 earns you a yellow star. As your feedback score increases, the star changes color, all the way to a silver shooting star for a score above 1,000,000.

We strongly encourage everyone to keep their feedback profile public. It helps you earn the trust of other eBay members, and so makes it more likely theyll want to trade with you.

In order to sell on eBay, your feedback profile must be public.

If you choose to make your feedback profile private, you wont be able to sell items on eBay and the feedback comments youve received will be hidden from other members. However, your overall number of positive, neutral, and negative feedback ratings will still be displayed.

Heres how to make your feedback profile public or private:

Setting up notifications lets you keep track of your eBay activity without having to be on the eBay site.

When you first register on eBay, well ask you to choose a home country or region. This helps us show you the most relevant items, in the correct currency, and in an appropriate language.

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