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VMware Front Experience A myth busted and an FAQ ESXi is not baseon Linux! Buwhais it?

Taking server virtualization down from the clouds to real life experience …

A myth busted and an FAQ: ESXi is *not* based on Linux! But what is it?

I have often heard or read the statement ESXi is based on Linux in this or some other variation when technical people discuss about how certain things work (or are supposed to work) in ESXi. This statement is not only plain wrong, but just doesnt make any sense! In fact it is like saying that

horses developed from cows, because both have a head, a tail and four legs

In this post I will explain why, and I also answer some other questions that are closely related to this discussion. The first one – surprisingly – is …

Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution.(Source:Wikipedia). It is important to understand that there is notoneLinux (like there is e.g. one Microsoft Windows), but a multitude of it, each assembled and distributed by different parties: There are community supported free distributions like Debian, Ubuntu and Fedora and commercially licensed and supported distributions by e.g. Redhat and Novell/SuSE.

All Linux distributions have one thing in common: The Linux kernel. The Wikipedia article quoted above calls itthe defining component of Linux. Almost every operating system is built upon a kernel which is a software layer that manages all hardware of a computer – it provides e.g. CPU scheduling, memory management and device drivers on the one hand, and defined interfaces to the application processes that run on top of it on the other hand.

The first version of the Linux kernel was authored byLinus Torvaldsin 1991. He is commonly referred to as the creator of Linux.

There is also a wide range of free and Open Source software that you will usually find in any Linux distribution: The X window system for graphical applications, desktop environments like Gnome and KDE, the web browser Firefox, and server services like the Apache http server, etc.

The answer to this question is a clearNo, because ESXi isnotbuilt upon the Linux kernel, but uses an own VMware proprietary kernel (the VMkernel) and software, and it misses most of the applications and components that are commonly found in all Linux distributions.

What do ESXi and Linux have in common!?

So ESXi is not based on Linux, but why do many people believe this? I think the main reason for this is that you can remotely open a terminal session on an ESXi host via thesshprotocol (if it has been enabled). And if you are in such a session you can use lots of commands (likecd,ls,df,grep, psetc.) that are also available in a Linux (or other Unix-) shell.

This is possible, because a software calledbusybox- a lightweight shell that is able to interpret and execute these commands – runs as a userworld of the VMkernel. But busybox and all other Unix-like tool that are available in an ESXi shell arenot Linux things. They are available in any Unix-like operating system and can even run on Windows (e.g. in aCygwinruntime environment)!

If you have ever taken a closer look at the ESXi internals that the shell exposes then you might have noticed more similarities to Linux (and other Unix-like operating systems), e.g.:

The typical directory structure with e.g.

A SysV-styleinitprocess that uses e.g. the configuration file

Shared Libraries of the GNU C compiler in

In ESXi 5.1 there is even theXorgX server installed! I believe that it is used to implement the new

feature in vSphere 5.1 (see number 5 in myvSphere 5.1 top new features post)

ESXi even uses the same binary format for executables (ELF) than Linux does, so it is really not a big surprise anymore that you can run some Linux binaries in an ESXi shell – provided that they are statically linked or only use libraries that are also available in ESXi! (I exploited this feature when describinghow to run HPs hpacucli tool in ESXiand when buildingthe ProFTPD package for ESXi).

After reading all this you might wonder How can I tell that ESXi isnotbased on Linux then?. It is because all these concepts and software exists independently from Linux (and the Linux kernel!) and are used inmanyoperating systems, resp. are implemented, maintained and distributed as OS-independent, autonomous packages. VMware just re-used all these mature concepts and software and this was in fact way smarter than re-inventing all these wheels! That means: ESXi and Linux are not based on each other, but share a common fundament.

But you can even use Linux device drivers in ESXi!

Not directly … you cannot use binary Linux driver modules in ESXi. Lots of Linux device drivers can be adapted to ESXi though by modifying their source code and compiling them specifically for ESXi. That means that the VMkernel of ESXi implements a sub-set of the Linux kernels driver interfaces, but also extends and adapts them to its own hypervisor-specific needs.

In my opinion this was another very clever move of the VMware ESXi architects and developers, because it makes it relatively easy to port an already existing Linux driver of a hardware device to ESXi. So the partners that produce such devices do not need to develop ESXi drivers from scratch. And it also enables non-commercial community developers to write device drivers for devices that are not supported by ESXi out-of-the-box!

However, you should be aware that the VMkernel only implements those driver interfaces that are necessary for acting as a hypervisor: that is mainly the network and storage stacks. You will e.g. not be able to easily port a driver for a scanner device or non-standard serial hardware to ESXi. The same applies to drivers for wireless LAN adapters, because they depend on kernel subsystems, other low-level drivers or management tools that are not available in ESXi and the VMkernel.

Another clearNohere! An operating system may only be called a UNIX if it fully implements theSingle UNIX specificationof theOpen Groupand has passed the associated certification process. ESXi does not (and was probably never meant to) implement all the necessary functionality and APIs that make up the UNIX standard.

You might call VMware ESXiUnix-like, but even this is disputed by official sources: Mike Foley – a Senior Technical Marketing Manager at VMware – recently explained in an interesting blog post titledIts a Unix system, I know thisthat A shell does not an OS make. His main point is that you do (or at least should) not manage an ESXi host through the shell, but via the management tools and scriptable APIs that are available for it, e.g. through PowerCLI. Or in other words: ESXi is not designed as a Unix, but as an embedded system that is managed through defined interfaces (of which most are not really Unix-like).

I used many words here to describe what ESXi isnot. But how do explain what it actuallyis? Here is my try: ESXi is

a bare metal (or type-1) hypervisor

incorporates free Open Source software components, but also uses

a unique proprietary OS kernel – the VMkernel –

which implements unique featuresthat are not available in any other operating system(e.g. the VMFS andVisorFSfile systems.

Wait … classic ESX is different – Thatisbased on Linux, right?

Those of you who have ever touched or even installed a classic ESX installation might know that it uses a Redhat Linux installation to boot itself and to provide management functionality. This Linux is the so-calledService Console OS(or shortCOS) of ESX. Its Linux kernel loads the VMkernel as a module and then passes complete control over the system to it. The VMkernel hypervisor in turn will then run the COS as a privileged VM.

So classic ESX really incorporates a Linux and depends on it for getting started and managed. According to this particular meaning you can really say that classic ESX is based on Linux, but that does not mean that the VMkernel and the VMware specific OS components developed from Linux. It just uses it as a piggyback.

The classic ESX architecture has probably very much boosted the perception that ESX(i) is based on Linux. But with the rise of theESXiarchitectureand the associated elimination of the COS the classic ESX architecture is obsolete now. The VMkernel of ESXi boots directly on the hardware and does not need a Linux OS anymore.

However, the classic ESX architecture specifically caused a lot of concerns and very controversial discussions about licensing topics and legal issues, and that brings us to the last question:

As explained above ESX and ESXi incorporate quite a few Open Source software that is licensed under theGNU Public License (GPL). The most important terms and conditions of the GPL are the following:

The GPL grants the right (or guarantees the freedom) to use, study, share (copy) and modify the software (source: Wikipedia).

Binary distributions of the software must be accompanied by its source code (to enable 1.).

In contrast to general believe GPL licensed software does not need to be provided for free (i.e. at no cost), butit can be sold.

Software that was derived from GPL licensed software must be itself licensed under the GPL.

VMware fulfills condition (2) by providing the source code of all GPL licensed software that is used in ESX(i) (and other VMware products). The Open Source code of the products are usually made available together with their binary downloads, see e.g. thedownload page of vSphere 5.1.

Back in 2008 there were voices claiming that the VMkernel is a derived work of the Linux kernel (and thus violates condition 4.), because of the fact that the VMkernel is loaded and initialized as a Linux kernel module in classic ESX. A post atsuggested this and got a lot of media coverage and lead to very lively discussions involving prominent people like the Linux kernel hackerAlan Coxand VMwares Zachary Amsden.

The accusation that VMware violates the GPL became obsolete with the architecture change towards ESXi, and – up to now – it was never decided in front of a court, because no one ever sued VMware for this. That means there is no proof as of today that VMware ever violated the GPL.

This post first appeared on theVMware Front Experience Blogand was written byAndreas Peetz

Follow him on Twitterto keep up to date with what he posts.Labels:ESXiGPLLinuxmyth debunkingVisorFSVMkernel

The answer to this question is a clear No, because ESXi is not built upon the Linux kernel, —

Ahhh, but leaked source code about a year ago does indicate it was built on the Linux kernel.

Can you point us to a source for this claim?

The leaked source code indicates no such thing. Andreass description of the relationship between Linux and ESX is very accurate.

There have been various reports of this ESX source code leakage back then. That caused security concerns, but there were no reports of Linux source code findings in there.

Well, I tend to believe that VMkernel is anyway a customized Linux kernel, probably heavily patched. But I have no proof of this, just a personal opinion =)

I had ESXi v5.0 crash on me (hardware issue) and have it display a line with CENTOS in it!

I dont believe for a minute its not *based* on some ported form of Linux, that been heavily customized, and stripped down. Ok, maybe it shouldnt be considered Linux then…

And this could not have been caused by a CentOS running on ESX?

Funny, as SSHing into one of my 5.1u1 boxes and running uname -a reports:

VMkernel **** 5.1.0 1 SMP Release build-1312873 Sep 6 2013 21:52:18 x86_64 GNU/Linux

Not only that, the HP ESXi ISO image dump shows: [ 0.006999] CPU: 0 PID: 0 Comm: swapper/0 Not tainted 3.11.0-14-generic 21-Ubuntu

(logged from a failed attempt at installing onto a HP Supermicro Gen8)

You see this, because the development environment of the VMkernel and ESXi software is Linux – that means a Linux system and the GNU C compiler is used to compile the VMkernel. It also makes use of some of the Linux kernel include files to implement the Linux compatible driver interface.

Thanks for this post.. hit the nail right on the head as I also thought VMware was using a Linux based kernel

They say that it was initially based on Linux but then modified.

Could you enlight us regarding this topic.

No, you do not find this sentence (or a similar statement) there!

This Wikipedia article describes the classic ESX architecture in pretty much the same way than I do in my post. It also clearly distinguishes between the Linux kernel of the service console (that is also used to boot classic ESX) and the VMkernel that is then loaded and takes over control.

Ok, I probably made a shortcut in my reading 😉

Rereading your article I think wikipedias article may need some clarifications !!

As I do not have the knowledge, I suggest you help them out a bit 😉

Running on ESXi 5.5 I ran uname -a form ssh

VMkernel x.x.x.x 5.5.0 1 SMP Release build-2068190 Aug 22 2014 19:00:51 x86_64 GNU/Linux

uname is a link to the busybox shell that ESXi uses. The term GNU/Linux that it outputs here is hard coded in the busybox source code. VMware should have changed the busybox source code so that it displays something else, but they didnt.

However, this is in no way a proof that the VMkernel is based on the Linux kernel.

Sorry. I am still not convinced, that the ESX / ESXi / VMkernel is not based on Linux.

I still somehow got the impression, that VMware took a Linux Kernel and stripped it down to the bare minimum they needed.

And Andreas Peetz, you never clearly stated, that VMware has indeed written the Kernel from scratch. ANd your wording sounds like just dancing around a clear statement:

…not built upon the Linux kernel

…because it is not using the full kernel.

An operating system may only be called a UNIX if it fully implements the Single UNIX specification of the Open Group and has passed the associated certification process.

…about the same! It does NOT implement ALL UNIX requirements and therefore may not be called UNIX.

So all your explanations just did the opposite for me. They just proved my impression, that VMware just took Linux and stripped it down. So not using the complete Kernel, ESX(i) is not built UPON Linux and not a CERTIFIABLE UNIX neither.

That is the impression Ive got!

Unfortunately you do not add anything new to the discussion, but just state your personal impressions.

The fact that you are doing this anonymously doesnt make it better.

I welcome you back if you have any reliable source or proof of your claims to share.

I really wanted to argue with you when I first read your post… but the more I thought about it, the more I couldnt. You are correct in stating that what defines an OS as being linux is the kernel. Everything else (at least for the linux OS – definitely doesnt hold true for windows or OS X) is additional programs that do not define the OS. This is how android can still be linux even though the user interface is totally different – it uses the linux kernel.

As I thought about what defined the linux kernel, I came to one conclusion that it is the GPL opensource code within it. VMWare has not released or acknowledged using any of the linux code. Unless VMWare is doing something illegal, the VMKernel must have been re-written from the ground up. Just because it uses the same specs as the linux kernel does not make it linux. That said, it wouldnt be the first time a company used GPL linux code within a proprietary system (remember linksys/cisco?).

Finally we will probably know more about whether VMKernel is based on Linux source code or not!

Software Freedom Conservacy is funding a lawsuit in this matter against VMware. See:

It is a fact (and VMware does not deny) that the VMkernel uses GPLed driver code from the Linux kernel.

What is argued in front of a court now is whether this makes the VMkernel itself (and ESXi as a whole) subject to the GPL.

This is the Open Source Code used in the VMkernel and published by VMware. So what?

Well, I think this is more about philosophy, or even logic.

If you call operating system a means of transportation, then you have linux (truck), windows (motorbike), OSX (bike), UNIX (passenger car)…etc…

Then in trucks you have brands like Mercendes – Ubuntu, CentOS – Volvo, etc…

So if someone will build a truck using same philosophy and rules to transport other trucks then what would you call it ? I say truck.

Especially when it uses some common parts (GPL etc) as other trucks to make it work. And those parts are not used in other means of transportation like motorbikes (Windows).

So simply put for me linux is a category and vmware is in it.

If you build OS that is communicating with firmware/hardware in a new way that make common parts used in other linux systems unusable in it. That is totally different you can call it a new category – and not linux.

I like your vehicle analogy and would say that the ESXi truck does not share the engine (= kernel) with the Linux truck, but only some of the engines interfaces / control mechanisms. Indeed it does share some parts that almost every truck has, but it also has some very unique parts that only the ESXi truck has (like this gadget to transfer goods from one ESXi truck to another while both are driving – VMotion :-))

While you might say that both Linux and ESXi are trucks Id still stay that the ESXi truck is not derived from (or based on) the Linux truck.

You can directly program in c code and access most lower level functions, then compile and run the code directly in ESXi. From my point of view, if it has a duck beak and hair, it is a platypus.

Solarisallows running native Linux binaries. So doesFreeBSD. Heck, evenWindows 10allows this now!

Or do you – as a zoologist – still have a lot to learn about Operating Systems?

The author seems to make the case that VMware didnt base this on Linux, and thus VMware built something from the ground up.

Due to lack of info, youre able to semantically argue your point; however, ESXi is very obviously and so heavily based on a Unix-style OS, that youd be hard-pressed to prove that there isnt direct bit-for-bit code all over the VMkernel.

This code originated somewhere *outside* of VMwares developers minds, and therefore should be considered borrowed.

VMware does not keep it secret that it has borrowed (Id say re-used) a lot of GPLed Open Source Code, and – to comply with the GPL terms – they have also published all this code.

You seem to mistakenly believe that all Open Source software is somehow Linux based or belongs to Linux, only because it is *also* used in Linux. This is plain false. Almost all of the Open Source applications used in ESXi exist independently of Linux and are also used in other Unix-like derivates (like FreeBSD and even commercial Unix OSs).

A well documented exception to this is ESXis compatibility layer to Linux kernel device drivers, but I also explained that already in my post.

So, honestly, I just dont get your point.

I wasnt at all insinuating that all open source software was based on Linux. I was simply stripping down the argument to borrowed code (open source) vs. non-borrowed code.

Im not saying its illegal, or that you shouldnt trust them. I was simply stating they didnt build anything from the ground up.

That being said, Im not real sure why I was making that point, and apologize if I came off as combative.

Few points here: Unless we can see the full source code of the VMKernel then we cannot say for sure if it is based on the Linux kernal or not. Dogmatically stating it isnt without having seen the source code and comparing it not proof that it isnt.

Personally I do suspect that it is a rebadged stripped down Linux or BSD kernel for one reason: Both BSD and Linux are very stable efficient kernels with open (do one degree or another) code. Why go to the effort of reinventing the wheel when the world and his wife embeds particularly the Linux kernel into many devices. It just seems logistically easier to do so. Of course, I havent seen the code either so I cannot state it IS, but my suspicion still lies in it being derived from the Linux kernel or the BSD kernel.

The only issue of course is the closed nature of the VMKernel… if it IS based on Linux then the code should be released too, I am not so sure about BSD however because that is not released under the GPL, but the BSD License.

Personally, it doesnt matter one way or another to me but it would be interesting to KNOW with proof one way or another.

the Linux kernel is a pretty universal multi-purpose Operating System kernel, whereas the VMkernel was developed as a very lightweight specialized Hypervisor-only kernel that has unique features like the VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor), the VMFS file system, VMotion (Live Migration) code etc.

This is why it would have made more sense to develop the VMkernel from scratch instead of stripping down a Linux kernel.

But maybe you are right. In the end its about trust or distrust. I personally do not have any reason to distrust VMware. And although you and me are not able to inspect the full VMkernel source code Im sure that other third parties have been able to do this, e.g. in the ongoing GPL lawsuit against VMware.

What a marvellous, well put together article, thank you! (The comments section is interesting to read as well.) Aside from debating any finer nuances, this overall understanding of some of the core architecture and even how it differs from ESX/COS has been extremely helpful in approaching ESXi and VMWare for the first time.

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KITT

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, seeKitt (disambiguation).

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Please helpimprove this articlebyadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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KITTis the short name of two fictional characters from the adventure TV seriesKnight Rider. While having the same acronym, the KITTs are two different entities: one known as theKnight Industries Two Thousand, which appeared in the original TV seriesKnight Rider, and the other as theKnight Industries Three Thousand, which appeared first in the two-hour 2008pilot filmfor a newKnight RiderTV series and then thenew seriesitself. In both instances, KITT is an artificially intelligent electronic computer module in the body of a highly advanced, very mobile, robotic automobile: the original KITT as a 1982Pontiac Firebird, and the second KITT as a2008/2009 Ford Shelby GT500KR. KITT was voiced byWilliam Danielsin the original series, and byVal Kilmerin the 2008 series.

A 1991 sequel movieKnight Rider 2000saw KITTs original microprocessor unit transferred into the body of the vehicle intended to be his successor, the Knight Industries Four Thousand (Knight 4000), voiced byCarmen ArgenzianoandWilliam Daniels.

Knight Industries Two Thousand (KITT)

KITT on display atUniversal Studiosin 1993. This car was built as a stunt car for the original series and the interior was later modified for the Universal Studios attraction.

Wider view of the Universal Studios attraction

The character of KITT (Knight Industries Two Thousand) in the originalKnight Riderseries was physically embodied as a modified1982 Pontiac Trans Am.

In the television shows history, the first KITT (Knight Industries Two Thousand) (William Daniels) was designed by the late Wilton Knight, a brilliant but eccentric billionaire and founder of the Foundation for Law And Government (FLAG) and its parent Knight Industries. The 2008pilot movielater implied that Charles Graiman, creator of the Knight Industries Three Thousand, also had a hand in designing the first KITT.

According to the series, the original KITTs main cybernetic processor was first installed in amainframe computerused by the US government inWashington, D.C.[1]However, Wilton saw better use for him in the Foundations crime-fighting crusade and eventually the system was installed in the vehicle. KITT was in fact the second vehicle built by Knight Industries withartificial intelligence. His predecessor wasKARR, theKnight Automated Roving Robot. KARR was programmed for self-preservation, but this proved to be dangerous to the Foundations humanitarian interests. KARR was later deactivated and placed in storage while KITT was given to his new operator,Michael Knight. KARR was later unwittingly reactivated by thieves in the original episodeTrust Doesnt Rust, was thought destroyed, then reappeared in the episodeK.I.T.T. vs. K.A.R.Rand was seen to be finally destroyed by Michael and KITT.

While the 2008pilot movieand then thenew seriesappears to be a revamp of the original series, it offers some continuity from the original TV seriesKnight Rider. The new or second KITT (Knight Industries Three Thousand) is a different vehicle and microprocessor unit. The original Knight Industries Two Thousand is also shown in thepilot movie(although in pieces) in the scene where the garage of Charles Graiman (creator of the Knight Industries Three Thousand and implied co-designer of the original KITT) is searched by antagonists. A Trans-Am body (without hood) is partially covered by a tarp, on which rests the rear spoiler. The famous KITT steering wheel (labelled Knight Two Thousand) and KNIGHT license plate are also shown, along with numerous black car body parts. When the camera shows a full scene of the garage, there are three cars in the garage: the 3000, a 2000 under a tarp, and a complete 2000.

The 1991 movieKnight Rider 2000saw the first KITT (Knight Industries Two Thousand) in pieces, andMichael Knighthimself reviving the microprocessor unit, which is eventually transferred into the body of the vehicle intended to be the original KITTs direct successor, the Knight 4000. The new vehicle was a modified 1991Dodge Stealth, appearing similar to thePontiac Bansheeprototype. However, no reference to this storyline nor any appearance of the Knight 4000 is made in thenew seriesor its 2008pilot movie. InKnight Rider 2000, it is stated that most of the Knight 2000 parts had been sold off. However, Graimans garage in the 2008 pilot shows a more complete collection of parts than in the boxes recovered by Michael Knight in the 1991 filmKnight Rider 2000. This adds to the mystique of the current whereabouts of the original KITT in the time-frame of the new series.

In the 1997 – 1998 spin-off seriesTeam Knight Rider, KITT is employed as a shadow advisor. It is later revealed that The Shadow is actually a hologram run by KITT. In Knight of the Living Dead, Graiman states a third KITT, exists as a backup. When KITT is about to die, his memories are downloaded so the third KITT can use them. However in the end the third AI is not used.

describes a work or element of fiction in a primarilyin-universestyle

Pleasehelp rewrite ittoexplain the fiction more clearly and provide non-fictional perspective.

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The front-mounted scanner bar that, among other things, allowed KITT to see was a nod to theCylons,[citation needed]villains from the TV seriesBattlestar Galactica, which had been created byGlen A. Larson, who also createdKnight Rider.

A refit in the 1985-86 season included the addition of Super Pursuit Mode and a convertible top.

KITT is essentially an advancedsupercomputeron wheels. The brain of KITT is the Knight 2000microprocessorwhich is the centre of alogic module that allowed KITT to think, learn, communicate and interact with humans. He always had an ego that was easy to bruise and displayed a very sensitive, but kind and dryly humorous personality. He also has an in-dash entertainment system that can play music and video, and run various computer programs includingarcade gameswhich Michael sometimes indulged in while KITT was driving. According to Episode 55, Dead of Knight, KITT has 1,000megabitsof memory with one. According to Episode 65, Ten Wheel Trouble, KITTs future capacity is unlimited. KITTs serial number is AD227529, as mentioned in Episode 31, Soul Survivor.

KITTs Alpha Circuit is part of KITTs main control system which allows the CPU to drive the car. The time KITTs evil twinKARRspent submerged in water damaged his Alpha Circuit, which required KARR to have an operator to control his Turbo Boost function.

KITT is armored with Tri-Helical Plasteel 1000 MBS (Molecular Bonded Shell) plating which protects him from almost all forms of conventional firearms and explosive devices. He could only be harmed by heavy artillery and rockets, and even then, the blast usually left most of his body intact and only damaged internal components. The shell protected every part of the car including the tires. As a result, KITTs body is durable enough to act as a shield for explosives by driving over bombs to cover them and suppress the blast, ram through rigid barriers of strong material like cinder block walls or steel gates without suffering damage himself while damage to the cars structural integrity with its frequent long jumps on turbo boost is never an issue. The shell also protected him from fire and electricity; however, it was vulnerable to some potent acids and at least one formula was made (with knowledge of the shells chemical base) to completely neutralize it. The shell is actually a combination of three secret substances referred together as the Knight Compound, developed by Wilton Knight who entrusted parts of the formula to three separate people. These individuals each only know two pieces of the formula, ensuring that any two of them could make more of the Knight Compound in an emergency situation and that no one person would be able to make it alone. The shell provided a frame tolerance of 223,000lb (111.5 tons) and a front and rear axle suspension load of 57,000lb (28.5 tons). In the pilot Knight of the Phoenix, the shell is described as the panels of the car itself; in the later episodes, especially from season two onward, the idea of the shell being applied to a base vehicle chemically is used.

KITT is protected by a thermal-resistant coating that can withstand sustained temperatures of up to 800 degrees Fahrenheit (426 C). First used in Episode 32, Ring of Fire.

KITT is powered by the Knight Industriesturbojetwith modifiedafterburnersand a computer controlled 8-speed turbodrive transmission. Specifications 060mph in 2 seconds, standing to quarter mile 4.286 seconds. Electromagnetic hyper-vacuum disc brakes: 14 foot (4.25m) braking distance (700mph – 1120km/h).

KITT instrumentation (1st/2nd seasons)

KITT instrumentation (3rd/4th seasons)

Used in most episodes, a pair of rocket boosters mounted just behind the front tires that lifted the car, allowing KITT to jump into the air and pass over obstacles in the road. Also, occasionally, Turbo Boost was used to allow KITT to accelerate to incredible speeds in excess of 200mph (322km/h). The boosters could fire forward or backward.

Voice (Anharmonic) Synthesizer

KITTs Voice Synthesizer allowed his logic module to speak and communicate. With it, KITT could also simulate other sounds. KITTs primary spoken language was English; however by accessing his language module, he could speak fluently inSpanishFrenchand much more. The module can be adjusted giving KITT differentaccentssuch as in Episode 82, Out of the Woods, where KITT uses a New York City accent and called Michael, Micky. During the first season, KITTs mouth (Voice Modulator) in the interior of the vehicle was a flashing red square. In episode 14 Heart of Stone, this was changed to three sectioned vertical bars, as this design proved popular with fans as part of KARR. (KARR used a bright yellow display with an inner bar that expanded outward and two outer bars that expanded from both ends inward, whereas KITTs was red and all three bars expanded outward from the center, but with greater magnitude in the center bar.)

KITT can project his voice at any position. First used in Episode 48, Knight of the Drones, Pt. 2.

KITTs most apparent feature was his front scan bar called the Anamorphic Equalizer. The device is afibre-opticarray of electronic eyes. The scanner could see in all visualwavelengthsas well asX-rayandinfrared. Occasionally, the bar could pulse in different patterns and sweep rapidly or very slowly. The scanner is also KITTs most vulnerable area.

This system allowed KITT to hear sound. An array of audio sensors was threaded throughout his interior and exterior.

KITT could smell via an atmospheric sampling device mounted in his front bumper.

Microscanners are tiny audio and visual sensors embedded into the grooves of KITTs body. They allow for visual tracking and display of anything around the car.

Normal Cruise- On Normal, Michael has control of the car. In an emergency, KITT could still take over and activate Auto Cruise mode.

Auto Cruise- In Auto, KITT could drive himself utilizing an advanced Auto Collision Avoidance system.

Pursuit- Pursuit is used during high-speed driving and is a combination of manual and computer assisted operation. KITT could respond to road conditions faster than Michaels reflexes could; however, Michael was technically in control of the vehicle and KITT helped guide certain maneuvers.

Super pursuit- KITTs Super-Pursuit mode was added at the start of the fourth season. It was the result of a redesign of the car to integrate new concepts consisting of improved rocket boosters for enhanced acceleration, retractable spoilers for aerodynamic stability, and movable air inlets for increased cooling. Super-Pursuit Mode provided a 40% boost in speed beyond the cars original top speed of 300 MPH. First used in Episode 70, Knight of the Juggernaut, Part II.Silent ModeKITT could run silently. The feature dampened his engine noise and allows him to sneak around. First used in Episode 37, White-Line Warriors.Grappling Hook and WinchKITT has a hidden winch and grappling hook system, one mounted under his front bumper, and another in a compartment behind his tail light plate. Most often the hook is connected by a strong cable, but a metal arm has also been seen. The grappling hook is first used in Episode 6, Not a Drop to Drink; the winch is first used in Episode 13, Forget Me Not.Oil Jets/Smoke ScreenKITT could spray an oil slick and a plume of smoke from under the rear bumper. First used in Episode 1, Knight of the Phoenix.Induction coilKITT has an induction coil he can produce from under his front bumper and that, being placed on a metal object, KITT can remotely induce electrical voltage or current in that object. This was used by Michael in Knight of the Drones (Part I) to electrify a fence in order to incapacitate and interrogate two thugs without seriously harming them.Flame ThrowerKITT has flame throwers mounted under his bumpers. First used in Episode 2, Deadly Maneuvers.Tear Gas LauncherKITT can dispense a cloud of tear gas along with his smoke screen. First used in Episode 13, Hearts of Stone.Ultramagnesium ChargesKITT can launch magnesium flares, which can also be used to divert heat-seeking missiles fired at him. First used in Episode 26, Merchants of Death.High Traction Drop DownsWhen activated, the HTDD system hydraulically raises KITTs chassis for better traction when driving off-road. First used in Episode 39, Speed Demons.Telephone ComlinkMichael could contact home base and communicate with Devon and others using KITTs video display.Microwave JammerKITT has an electronic jamming system that played havoc on electrical systems. The three main components are the Electromagnetic Field Generator, Electronic Field Disrupter and Microwave Ignition Sensor. The system could take control of electronic machines, allowing things like cheating at slot machines, breakingelectronic locks, fouling security cameras, and withdrawing money from ATMs. In Episode 26, Merchants of Death the Microwave Jammers power has been increased 3 times than its normal strength, strong enough to bring down a helicopter, at a limited distance.MicrolockKITT could lock the brakes of other vehicles. This system is believed to work by utilizing focused microwaves to heat the brake fluid, causing it to expand and apply the brakes of the car.Surveillance ModeSurveillance Mode did several things:

KITT could detect people and vehicles and track their movements and discern proximity.

KITT could gather structural schematics of buildings, vehicles, or other devices and help Michael avoid potential danger when he was snooping.

KITT could also monitor radio transmissions and telephone communications within a location and trace those calls.

KITT could tap into computer systems to monitor, or upload and download information as long as he could break the access codes.Traction SpikesAdded in Episode 86 Hills of Fire. KITTs tires produce spikes that allow KITT to overcome steep terrain.Infrared Tracking ScopeKITT could monitor the position of specific vehicles in the area within 10 miles.Laser PowerpackKITT can fire a high powered ultra-frequency modulated laser capable of burning through steel plating. Like most of KITTs components, the schematics for the laser device are classified. First used in Episode 9, Trust Doesnt Rust and was used to try and destroy KARR by hitting KARRs only weak spot, however it never hit the mark due to miss calibration.Bomb SnifferKITT is equipped with a bomb sniffer module that can detect explosives within a few yards of the vehicle. However the only downside is that if a building has steel beams in concrete itll interfere the bomb sniffer. First used in Episode 25, Brothers Keeper.Medical scannerKITT has a medical scanner that includes anelectrocardiograph(ECG). The medical scanner can monitor the vital signs of individuals and display them on his monitors. It could indicate such conditions as if they were injured, poisoned, undergoing stress or other emotional behavior. KITT could even monitor Michaels physical activity through sensors inside the driver seat. First used in Episode 1, Knight of the Phoenix (Pt. 2).Tintable WindowsKITT can tint the windshield and windows to become opaque. First seen in Episode 14, Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death.Deflatable TiresKITT could deflate and re-inflate his tires. First used in Episode 5 (first episode was actually 2 episodes), Slammin Sammys Stunt Show Spectacular.Fuel ProcessorKITT was powered by a turbine engine primarily fueled by hydrogen gas. However, his complex fuel processor allows him to run on any combustible liquid, even regular gasoline. KITTs actual fuel requirements and efficiency ratings were classified, however in one episode, KITT mentioned his fuel economy was at least 65 miles per gallon. However, when operating on fuels other than liquid hydrogen, KITTs fuel efficiency and power output may be lowered.Voice Stress AnalyzerKITT can process spoken voices and determine if someone may be lying. First used in Episode 26, Merchants of Death.Seat Ejection SystemKITT had two front ejection seats, mostly used when Michael needed a boost to fire escapes or building roof tops. First used in Episode 1, Knight of the Phoenix (Pt. 1).Passive Laser Restraint SystemAdded to KITT in later seasons, the restraint system helped protect Michael and any passengers from the shock of sudden impacts and hard stopping, especially after Super-Pursuit Mode. It is speculated that this is a primitive form of aninertial dampingdevice. First used in Episode 47, Knight of the Drones.Video Display MonitorsKITT had twoCRTvideo display monitors on his dash for various readouts. They are controlled by two systems, the Graphic Translator (which sketches likenesses from verbal input) and the Anamorphic Equalizer (which gathered visual information from KITTs front scan bar) and microscanners. KITT only had one when his dash was redesigned for the shows third season.Computer Print OutKITT could print hard copies of data on a dashboard-mounted printer. First used in Episode 15, The Topaz Connection.Money DispenserKITT could give Michael money when he needed it.Ultraphonic Chemical AnalyzerKITT has a retractable tray with anelectron scannerthat could analyze the chemical properties of various materials. It could even scanfingerprintsand read ballistic information off bullets and compare these with a police database. Aside from the scanning tray, the system could also analyze chemical information gathered from KITTs exterior sensors. First used in Episode 17, Chariot of Gold.Interior OxygenatorKITT could release oxygen into his driver compartment and provide air to passengers if he was ever submerged in water or buried in earth. This is also used to overcome the effects of certain drugs. First used in Episode 5 (First episode was actually 2 episodes in one), Slammin Sammys Stunt Show Spectacular.Two-Wheel Ski DriveThe Ski Mode setting allowed KITT toski(driving up on two wheels). First used in Episode 1, Knight of the Phoenix.Third Stage Aquatic SynthesizerWith this system, KITT canhydroplane, effectively driving on water, using his wheels and turbo system for propulsion. First used in Episode 28, Return to Cadiz but, later removed because it was now faulty at the end of the episode.Emergency Braking SystemThe EBS slowed KITT down from Super-Pursuit speeds. It consisted of a forward braking booster and air panels that popped out to create air friction (air brakes). First used in Episode 70, Knight of the Juggernaut, Part II.Convertible RoofAdded fourth season, by pressing the C button on KITTs dash, Michael could bring the top down and KITT became aconvertible. First used in Episode 70, Knight of the Juggernaut, Part II.

An unknown number of these systems were designed at Stanford University (Episode 5, Just My Bill). KITTs total production cost was estimated at $11,400,000 in 1982 ($27,123,021.76 in 2013).[citation needed]The cost of subsequent equipment improvements and the installation of additional features since his activation have not been factored.

KITT is in constant contact with Michael via a two-way communication wristwatch (a modified 80s LCD AM radio watch) Michael wore. The watch also had a micro camera and scanner that KITT could access to gather information.

In dire emergency, Michael can activate a secret homing beacon hidden inside a gold pendant he wears around his neck. The beacon sends a priority signal that can remotely activate KITT and override his programming so that he rushes to Michaels aid. Used in Episode 42, A Good Knights Work and in Knights of the Fast Lane.

F.L.A.G. Mobile Unit with Aerodynamic Sleeping Cab

F.L.A.G. Mobile Unit (The Semi)

KITT has access to a mobile garage, sometimes referred to as The Rook, which was asemi-trailer truckowned by the Foundation. In most episodes, it is aGMC General. The trailer has an extendable ramp that dropped down and allows KITT to drive inside even when the truck is in motion. The trailer was loaded with spare parts and equipment for KITT. It also had a computer lab where technicians Bonnie or April would work and conduct repairs and maintenance. In Wrong Crowd thieves hijack the truck thinking it to be hauling liquor. In the episode Ten Wheel Trouble, following an assassination attempt on Michael which damages an independent truck, it is used to transport a shipment of onions. In the episode Knight Moves, it is used as bait to catch a gang of truck hijackers. In KITTnap, KITT is kidnapped and Michael and RC3 use the tractor (which has been disconnected from the trailer) to go and find him.

KITTs scanner is similar to that ofCylonsfrom the science fiction series

.Glen A. Larson, the creator of both

has stated that the two shows have nothing else in common and to remove any fan speculation, he stated in the Season One

DVD audio-comments, he simply reused the scanning light for KITT because he liked the effect.

KITT was designed by customizer Michael Scheffe.

The convertible and super-pursuit KITTs were designed and built byGeorge Barris.

A total of 23 KITT cars were made for use in filming the series. All except one of these cars survived until the show was axed; all except 5 of the remaining 22 cars were destroyed at the end of filming. Of the 5 that escaped that fate: 1 hero car was shipped to a theme park in Australia, but is now believed to be back in the US (whereabouts unknown); Universal kept one hero car and one stunt car (and had a further replica made later) for use in the Entertainment Center display – the two originals have since been sold to a private collector in the US; another, a convertible, disappeared for a while before being sold to the formerCars of the Stars Motor MuseuminKeswick, Cumbria, England

This convertible was sold to the Dezer Collection,MiamiFloridawhen Cars of the Stars closed. The fifth car is believed to be in private hands in the UK – this may be the only KITT that remains original and is believed not to have been restored with replica parts.

The right-hand drive KITT, known as the Official Right Hand Drive KITT as used in the video Jump In My Car by David Hasselhoff, is owned by a company called Wilderness Studios Australia.

Press releases regularly appear claiming original screen-used cars are being sold. For example: in April 4, 2007, one of the four KITT cars used in production of the television series was reputedly being put up for sale for $149,995 by Johnny Verhoek of Kassabian Motors, Dublin, California.

from December 2007 states that Slain real estate developer and car aficionado, Andrew Kissel, was in possession of one of the surviving cars. Some reports say that Michael Jackson bought an original KITT and former NSync band member Joey Fatone also claims to have purchased one of these authentic original KITTs at auction.

There have been more original cars auctioned than were built in total for the show!

The September 25, 2014 fifth episode of the Dutch TV programme

, featuring people withDown syndromewho wish to fulfill a dream, features Twan Vermeulen, a

fan who wishes to meet David Hasselhoff and KITT. Together with the shows presenter they fly to L.A. and go searching for Hasselhoffs house. They find Hasselhoff on the driveway in front of his house, dusting off KITT. After KITT speaks a personal message to Twan, Hasselhoff offers to go with him to take KITT for a spin, Freak out some people on the freeway, which they did with great pleasure for everyone involved.

KITT accompanied Hasselhoff when he performed onstage, singing one of his songs atDisneylandin 1985, with various Disney characters behind him as his band.

KITT was reunited with Hasselhoff in a season 1 episode of the variety show/talent show

, Adam and Jamie tested whether KITT could in fact drive up the ramp into the mobile garage or whether upon hitting the ramp he would instantly accelerate into the truck and through the wall.

episode Changing Channels, the shows protagonists are constantly being transported to alternate dimensions based on parodies of popular TV series. One includes protagonistDean Winchesterriding a variation of his usual 1967 Chevy Impala that resembles KITT, with his brotherSamhaving been literally turned into the car, the episode featuring a scene with Dean driving the Sampala with Knight Riders theme playing in the background.

KITT (voiced bySeth MacFarlane) appeared with Hasselhoff in a Comic-Con segment from the unrated version of the 2015 comedy

Fun Pack, with William Daniels reprising his role.

, KITT appears as part of a flashback which includes a newspaper headline reading Herbie Meets Knight Rider

episodeThe Honking, where it is revealed that his windscreen wipers were used as part of Project Satan, to create a car from components of the most evil cars in history (when characters observe that KITT wasnt evil, it is clarified that his windscreen wipers

evil but it never came up in the show).

episode Drive Happy, the self-driving boatmobile named Coupe is based on KITT.

episode Game Girls, a car named KIRTT (Klunky Incognito Radical Thought Transporter) has a sports mode form (a modified 1967 Ford Mustang).

episode Mouse vs. Machine, S.R.R. (Self-Racing Roadster), an A.I. roadster built by Professor Von Drake, is closely related to KITT.

, the KITT AI and scanner is fitted in Parzivals

Captain America: The Winter Soldier

, Nick Furys SUV has a few functions that are similar to KITTs.

Various toy versions of KITT have been released. Among the best knownKnight Ridermemorabilia includes the remote controlled KITT, the Knight Rider lunch box, and the deluxe version of KITT. The deluxe model of KITT, sold byKenner Toysand dubbed the Knight 2000 Voice Car, spoke electronically (actual voice of William Daniels), featured a detailed interior and a Michael Knight action figure.[9]ERTLreleased die-cast toys of KITT in three different sizes the common miniature sized model, a medium sized model, and a large sized model. These toys featured red reflective holograms on the nose to represent the scanner. Also in late 2004,1/18 scaledie-cast models of KITT and KARR were produced from ERTL complete with detailed interior and light up moving scanner just like in the series.[10]In September 2006, Hitari, a UK based company that produces remote control toy cars, released the Knight Rider KITT remote control car in 1/15 scale complete with the working red scanner lights, KITTs voice from the TV show and the cars turbine engine sound with the cylon scanner sound effect.[11][12]In December 2012, Diamond Select Toys released a talking electronic 1/15 scale KITT which features a light up dashboard, scanner, foglights and tail lights along with the original voice of KITT, William Daniels, all at a push of a button.[13]

A more serious-minded joint venture was the Knight Rider GPS. Once again featuring the iconic voice of William Daniels, the item was indeed a fully working GPS using Mio navigational technology. The GPS featured custom recorded voices so that the unit could speak to its owner using their own name if it was one of the ones in the recorded set of names.[14]

Knight Industries Three Thousand (KITT)

Main articles:Knight Rider (2008 film)andKnight Rider (2008 TV series)

describes a work or element of fiction in a primarilyin-universestyle

Pleasehelp rewrite ittoexplain the fiction more clearly and provide non-fictional perspective.

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The 2008 update toKnight Riderincludes a new KITT the acronym now standing for Knight Industries Three Thousand. The KITT platform is patterned on aShelby GT500KRand differs from the original Two Thousand unit in several ways. For example, the 2008 KITT utilizes nano-technology, allowing the cars outer shell to change colors and morph itself into similar forms temporarily.[15]The nanotech platform is written as needing the AI active in order to produce any of these effects, unlike the original cars gadgets and molecular bonded shell which allowed it to endure extreme impacts. These down-sides to the use of nanotech have been demonstrated when villains are able to ca

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Pause the game, select the Extras option, and choose the Enter Code selection. Then, enter one of the following codes to activate the corresponding cheat function:

Successfully complete the indicated task to unlock the corresponding character:

A.I.M. Agent: Successfully complete Level 10: That Sinking Feeling.

Abomination: Successfully complete Level 4: Rock Up At The Lock up.

Absorbing Man: Collect his token in the Industrial District.

Agent Coulson: Successfully complete the Tabloid Tidy UP bonus level.

Aldrich Killian: Successfully complete Level 5: Rebooted, Resuited.

Ant-Man: Collect the Ant-Man token in the Industrial District.

Archangel: Collect the Archangel token south of the X-Mansion (south of giant billboard).

Arnim Zola: Successfully complete Level 6: Red Head Detention.

Aunt May: Successfully complete Deadpools three missions.

Beast: Successfully complete Level 8: Juggernauts And Crosses.

Beetle: Collect the Beetle token at one block east of the Central Park lake.

Blade: Successfully complete Blades three missions.

Black Cat: Collect the Black Cat token at the cat pet shop, directly under Lady Liberty on the map; requires Spider-Man.

Black Panther: Successfully complete Black Panthers three missions.

Black Widow: Successfully complete Level 3: Exploratory Laboratory.

Blob: Collect the Blob token after completing the Put Up Your Dukes bonus level.

Bullseye: Collect his token in the Slums District.

Captain America: Successfully complete Level 2: Times Square Off.

Captain America (Comics): Successfully complete The Brick Apple bonus level.

Captain Britain: Successfully complete The Brick Apple bonus level.

Carnage: Collect his token in the Residential District.

Colossus: Collect the Colossus token at the front right courtyard of the X-Mansion.

Cyclops: Successfully complete Level 8: Juggernauts And Crosses.

Cyclops (Astonishing): Taxi the character in the Financial District to his destination, and collect his token.

Damage Control: Collect the Damage Control token by putting out fires on the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier deck with the water gun.

Daredevil: Successfully complete the Feeling Frisky bonus level.

Deadpool: Collect all Deadpool Red Bricks.

Doc Ock: Successfully complete Level 2: Times Square Off.

Doc Ock (Ultimate): Successfully complete the Tabloid Tidy UP bonus level.

Doctor Doom: Successfully complete Level 14: A Doom With A View.

Doctor Strange: Successfully complete the Stranger Danger bonus level.

Doombot: Successfully complete Level 9: Doctor In The House.

Doombot (V-Series): Successfully complete Level 14: A Doom With A View.

Drax The Destroyer: Successfully complete Story mode, then complete three missions received from Drax.

Electro: Successfully complete the A Shock Withdrawal bonus level.

Electro (Ultimate): Taxi the character in front of the Oscorp Building to her destination, and collect her token.

Elektra: Collect her token in the Slums District.

Emma Frost: Successfully complete a mission from Professor X.

Frost Giant: Successfully complete Level 7: Bifrosty Reception.

Galactus (Playable): Successfully complete Level 15: The Good, The Bad And The Hungry.

Gambit: Successfully complete three of Gambits missions.

Gamora: Successfully complete Story mode, then complete the first missions received from Drax.

Ghost Rider: Successfully complete the Stunt Show Surprise bonus level.

Green Goblin: Successfully complete Level 9: Doctor In The House.

Green Goblin (Ultimate): Collect his token in the Thrill Of The Chess bonus level.

Groot: Successfully complete Story mode, then complete three missions received from Groot.

Gwen Stacy: Successfully complete Mission 47 for Drax.

Havok: Collect his token in the Forest District.

Hawkeye: Successfully complete Level 3: Exploratory Laboratory.

Heimdall: Successfully complete Heimdalls three missions.

H.E.R.B.I.E.: Successfully complete Level 2: Times Square Off.

Howard the Duck: Successfully complete the Nuff Said bonus level.

Hulk: Successfully complete Level 1: Sand Central Station.

Human Torch: Successfully complete Level 6: Red Head Detention.

Hydra Agent: Collect his token in the Forest District.

Iceman: Successfully complete Level 8: Juggernauts And Crosses.

Invisible Woman: Successfully complete Level 9: Doctor In The House.

Invisible Woman (Future Foundation): Collect her token in the Stranger Danger bonus level.

Iron Fist: Successfully complete the race mission with Blade, then win the fight with the ice enemies in the Blade mission.

Iron Man (Heroic Age): Successfully complete Deadpools New York Event bonus mission.

Iron Man (Hulkbuster): Land on the S sign landing platform, then destroy all air vents around the S sign.

Iron Man MK I: Successfully complete Level 5: Rebooted, Resuited.

Iron Man MK VI: Successfully complete Level 1: Sand Central Station.

Iron Man MK VII: Successfully complete the House Party Protocol bonus level.

Iron Man MK XLVII: Successfully complete Level 5: Rebooted, Resuited.

Iron Man MK XVII: Successfully complete the House Party Protocol bonus level.

J. Jonah Jameson: Successfully complete the Tabloid Tidy Up bonus level.

Jean Grey: Successfully complete Level 8: Juggernauts And Crosses.

Juggernaut: Successfully complete Level 8: Juggernauts And Crosses.

Kingpin: Successfully complete the Feeling Frisky bonus level.

Kingpin Henchman: Collect his token in the Feeling Frisky bonus level.

Kraven The Hunter: Collect the Kraven token by shooting the five targets next to the Godzilla-type icon at Central Park.

Kurse: Defeat him in battle near Roxxon Power Station, and collect his token.

Lady Liberty (Minifigure): Successfully complete Level 11: Taking Liberties.

Laufey: Successfully complete the Bro-tunheim bonus level.

Loki: Successfully complete Level 15: The Good, The Bad And The Hungry.

Magneto: Successfully complete Level 13: Magnetic Personality.

Magneto Acolyte: Successfully complete Level 13: Magnetic Personality.

Malekith: Successfully complete the Bro-tunheim bonus level.

Mandarin (Film): Collect his token in the Stunt Show Surprise bonus level.

Maria Hill: Successfully complete Maria Hills three missions on the Helicarrier.

Mary Jane Watson: Collect her token in the Residential District.

Mister Fantastic: Successfully complete Level 2: Times Square Off.

Mister Fantastic (Future Foundation): Defeat Ghost Rider in a race starting in West Harlem.

M.O.D.O.K.: Successfully complete Level 10: That Sinking Feeling.

Moon Knight: Collect his token in the A Shock Withdrawal bonus level.

Ms. Marvel: Collect her token in the Nuff Said bonus level.

Mysterio: Successfully complete the Thrill Of The Chess bonus level.

Mystique: Successfully complete Level 12: Rapturous Rise.

Nick Fury: Successfully complete Level 9: Doctor In The House.

Nightmare: Successfully complete the Stunt Show Surprise bonus level.

Nova: Successfully complete the foot race mission with Nova to the east of the Godzilla-type icon at Central Park.

Pepper Potts: Successfully complete Black Panthers first mission.

Phoenix: Successfully complete the Put Up Your Dukes bonus level.

Polaris: Successfully complete the Thrill Of The Chess bonus level.

Power Man: Collect his token in the Yorkville District.

Professor Xavier: Successfully complete Professor Xaviers three missions behind the X-Mansion.

Psylocke: Successfully complete all Captain Britains missions.

Punisher: Successfully complete his three missions.

Pyro: Successfully complete Level 8: Juggernauts And Crosses.

Red Hulk: Defeat Red Hulk in battle, and collect his token.

Red Skull: Successfully complete Level 6: Red Head Detention.

Rescue: Successfully complete Black Panthers second mission.

Rhino: Successfully complete Level 12: Rapturous Rise.

Rocket Raccoon: Successfully complete the following three missions: Garbage truck northwest of Central Park, just east of the Feeling Fisky bonus mission, and three or four blocks south of the east coast.

Ronan The Accuser: Collect the Ronan character token by finding the hidden path behind the statue south of his icon.

Roxxon Agent: Successfully complete Level 1: Sand Central Station.

S.H.I.E.L.D. Agent: Collect his token on the Helicarrier.

Sabretooth: Successfully complete Level 4: Rock Up At The Lock Up.

Sandman: Successfully complete Level 1: Sand Central Station.

Sandman Goon: Collect his token directly east of the Lizard House, near the water.

Sentinal (Minifig): Defeat the Sentinal, and collect its token.

She-Hulk: Collect her token in the Scrapyard.

Shocker: Successfully complete the A Shock Withdrawl bonus level.

Silver Samurai: Collect his token in the Industrial District.

Silver Surfer: Successfully complete three Silver Surfer missions.

Spider-Man: Successfully complete Level 1: Sand Central Station.

Spider-Man (Future Foundation): Defeat Ghost Rider in a race in the Dockyard.

Spider-Woman: Collect the Spider-Woman token west of the park, on the southern-most part of the island.

Squirrel Girl: Collect the Squirrel Girl token on the docks, northwest of the Put Up Your Dukes bonus mission.

Star-Lord: Successfully complete three missions from Star-Lord.

Storm: Successfully complete Level 8: Juggernauts And Crosses.

Superior Spider-Man: Skydive off the Empire State Building, fall through the rings of studs, then collect his token near the ground.

Super-Skrull: Collect his token in the Upper East Side.

Symbiote Scientist: Successfully complete Level 3: Exploratory Laboratory.

Symbiote Scientist (Hazmat): Successfully complete Level 3: Exploratory Laboratory.

Taskmaster: Collect his token on a platform above the clouds east of Liberty Island.

The Destroyer (Playable): Successfully complete Level 7: Bifrosty Reception.

The Leader: Collect his token near Fisk Tower.

The Mandarin: Successfully complete Level 5: Rebooted, Resuited.

Thing: Successfully complete Level 9: Doctor In The House.

Thing (Future Foundation): Collect his token in the Reptilian Ruckus bonus level.

Thor: Successfully complete Level 7: Bifrosty Reception.

Thor (Classic): Collect his token in the Bro-tunheim bonus level.

Toad: Successfully complete his three missions.

Tony Stark: Successfully complete Level 5: Rebooted, Resuited.

Tony Stark (Underwear): Successfully complete Level 4: Rock Up At The Lock Up.

Union Jack: Successfully complete The Brick Apple bonus level.

Venom: Successfully complete Level 3: Exploratory Laboratory.

Viper: Collect his token in Central Park.

Vulture: Successfully complete the Nuff Said bonus level.

War Machine: Successfully complete the House Party Protocol bonus level.

Wasp: Collect the Wasp token one block south of the Oscorp Building.

Whiplash: Collect his token in Yorkville.

Wizard: Collect his token on the Baxter Building.

Wolverine: Successfully complete Level 4: Rock Up At The Lock Up.

Wolverine (Cowl): Collect his token in the Put Up Your Dukes bonus level.

Successfully complete the indicated task to unlock the corresponding vehicle for purchase at their call-in locations (land for cars, water for boats, or helipads for planes and helicopters):

Captain Americas Bike: Taxi the character at the Dockyard to its destination.

Chitauri Chariot: Unfreeze four citizens who are frozen by Loki in Times Square.

Deadpools Helicopter: Successfully complete a Deadpool mission in West Harlem.

Deadpools Scooter: Defeat Deadpool in a race on the Brooklyn Bridge.

Doom Jet: Collect its token in the Financial District.

Fantasticar: Collect its token atop a fountain in Central Park.

Flower Car: Successfully complete a Groot quest in Central Park.

Garbage Truck: Successfully complete a Roccet Raccoon quest in the Scrapyard.

Ghost Riders Motorcycle: Defeat Ghost Rider in three races.

Go-kart: Defeat Maria in a race on the SHIELD carrier.

Golf Cart: Collect its token on Liberty Island.

Hydra Tank: Collect its token at the top of the Empire State Building.

Magneto-mobile: Successfully complete a Professor X mission at the X-Mansion.

Mandarins Boat: Successfully complete a Groot quest in the Financial District.

Mandarins Buggy: Collect its token in the Industrial District.

Mandarins Helicopter: Successfully complete a Gambit mission at the X-Mansion.

News Helicopter: Collect its token above the tunnel in the Upper East Side.

Pizza Bike: Defeat Blade in a race beginning in the Financial District.

Pizza Van: Collect its token in a store in Little Italy.

Police Helicopter: Shoot four targets in the Industrial District.

Police Motorcycle: Collect its token in Yorkville.

Police Truck: Collect its token at Horizon Labs.

Pumpkin Chopper: Collect its token at the top of the Oscorp Building.

Punishers Car: Successfully complete the Punishers mission after unlocking his truck.

Punishers Truck: Successfully complete the Punishers first mission.

Raft Helicopter: Collect its token on The Raft.

Raft Truck: Collect its token at The Rafts Island.

Raid Truck: Win the Whack-A-Mole game at The Raft Ferryport.

S.H.I.E.L.D. 4×4: Collect its token in the Upper West Side.

S.H.I.E.L.D. APC: Collect its token in a building at The Raft.

S.H.I.E.L.D. Jetfighter: Collect its token on the deck of the SHIELD Helicarrier.

S.H.I.E.L.D. Minicarrier: Successfully complete a Maria quest on the SHIELD Helicarrier.

S.H.I.E.L.D. Staff Car: Collect its token at the top of a building in the Financial District.

Spider-Copter: Destroy three spider webs at the top of Ant-Mans lab.

Spider-Cycle: Collect its token at the top of Sanctum Sanctorum.

Spider-Trike: Collect its token in a greenhouse in the Upper East Side.

Stark Jet: Collect its token in the water in Central Park.

The Britmobile: Successfully complete a Captain Britain quest in the Financial District.

Wolverines Motorcycle: Successfully complete a Toad quest in Industrial District.

X-Jet: Collect its token in a cave under the X-Mansion.

Successfully complete the indicated task to unlock the corresponding multiplier brick:

x2 Multiplier: EnterUZFBG4as a code or purchase it for 1,000,00 studs.

x4 Multiplier: Use a telekinesis character in the Tabloid Tidy Up bonus level to rearrange the trophies in the back office. It can then be purchased for 2,000,000 studs.

x6 Multiplier: Use a telekinesis character in the Feeling Fisky level to interact with the picture of the Kingpin on the back wall. Then, use a laser or fire character to destroy the gold shape. It can then be purchased for 3,000,000 studs.

x8 Multiplier: Use an electric character to start a transformer in the Reptillian Ruckus level, followed by a magnetic character to open up a container containing the red brick. It can then be purchased for 4,000,000 studs.

x10 Multiplier: Use a telekinesis character in the House Party Protocol level to break the swinging piñata. It can then be purchased for 5,000,000 studs.

Transform the following characters: The Hulk, Lizard, Stan Lee, Red Hulk, and Venom to get the Alter Ego trophy.

Unlock and purchase the following characters: The Hulk, Captain America, Thor, Hawkeye, Black Widow, Iron Man Mark 1, Iron Man Mark 6, Iron Man Mark 7, Iron Man Mark 42, Nick Fury, Agent Coulson, and Maria Hill to get the Avengers Assemble trophy.

Black Cat is found near the Lady Liberty marker on the map in Free Roam mode. There will be a neon cat sign on the corner. Solve the puzzle to enter the building to find her character token. She can then be purchased for 150,000 studs.

The effect of the stud multiplier bricks is cumulative. Find and use all the Deadpool multiplier bricks to get a multiplier over x3000 and get the Billionaire Philanthropist trophy.

Unlock and purchase the following characters: Blob, Juggernaut, Magneto, Magneto Acolyte, Mastermind, Mystique, Pyro, Sabretooth, Toad to get the Brotherhood trophy.

Play with a friend in local co-op mode. Have one player be Captain America and the other be the Human Torch to get the Dont I Know You? trophy.Note:Human Torch is unlocked by completing the Red Head Detention Level 6 mission. Captain America is unlocked during the storyline.

Start Level 2 on the carrier as Captain America and Mr. Fantastic. Go to the designated drop points and skydive to get the Falling… with Style trophy.

Unlock Colossus by completing Level 8: Juggernauts And Crosses, then defeat the sentinel outside the X-Men Mansion.Note:Consider using Iron Man and Thor for the sentinel fights. You can then purchase Colossus for 150,000 studs at the character store. Select Colossus and Wolverine. Play as Colossus, walk up to Wolverine, then use the default attack to throw him and get the Fastball Special trophy.

Unlock and purchase the following characters: Drax, Gamora, Groot, Nova, Rocket Raccoon, Star Lord, and Ronan the Accuser to get the Guardians Of The Galaxy trophy.

In Level 9: Doctor In The House, switch to The Thing. Kill all the enemies, and progress to the part where you must save Torch. Keep playing as The Thing, and farm kills on the infinite waves to get the Its Clobberin Time trophy.

Collect all of the minikits from a level, then go to the helicarrier. Reach the lower level where Deadpools room is located, go to the far right side, then open a comic to get the Its Me Time! trophy.

Pay 150,000 studs to get the Magneto Mobile after unlocking it by completing one of Professor Xs missions. Drive it to the building where you began Level 2, which is marked with The Fantastic Four logo on the map, to get the Menace Of Magneto trophy.

Successfully complete Level 15, and watched the credits. You can then go to Stark Tower to attend a party. Wait until the party ends to get the Post-Credit Party trophy.

Successfully complete the game. Then, set one character as The Hulk and the other to Loki. Keep attacking as The Hulk on Loki until he performs his slam dunk on him to get the Puny God trophy.

Successfully complete the Nuff Said side mission obtained at the Marvel Headquarters to get the Really? trophy. Alternately, enterJ58RSSas a code.

Use a turret on the helicarrier, and shoot the little ships to get the Road Rage trophy.

Unlock and purchase the following characters: Doc Ock, Sandman, Mysterio, Kraven The Hunter, Electro, and Vulture to get the Sinister Six trophy.Note:You will also need 175 gold bricks.

Rescue all of the Stan Lees in Peril to unlock him as a character. Select him and transform into Stan Hulk to get the Stans Soapbox trophy.

Successfully complete Level 1: Sand Central Station, and you will begin playing as Mr. Fantastic and Captain America. Switch to Mr. Fantastic to switch into a teapot and get the This Is Fantastic! trophy.

Unlock and purchase the following characters: ArchangelBeast, Colossus, Cyclops, Gambit, Havok, Ice Man, Jean Grey, Polaris, Professor Xavier, Psylocke, Storm, Wolverine, and Wolverine (Cowl) to get the To Me, My X-Men trophy.

Go to the medical bay, and find the character creator. Change the name in the character creator to Trevor to get The Toast Of Croydon trophy.

Successfully complete the Tabloid Tidy Up Deadpool side mission obtained at The Daily Bugle office. When you have access to the entire hub map, you can find The Daily Bugle building as the bugle icon on the map. Build the entrance out of gold bricks, enter, and the mission will begin.

Successfully complete the following tasks to get a 100% game completion and the You Win A No-Prize! trophy:

1. Collect all 15 Red Deadpool bricks.

3. Successfully complete all 15 story and 11 hub missions (26).

4. Earn True Believer status in all story and hub missions (26).

5. Collect all minikits in the story missions (15).

6. Rescue all of the Stan Lees in Peril; 15 in Story mode, 35 in Free Play mode, and the remaining 133 are scattered randomly.

Unlock and purchase the following characters: Ant-Man, Beast, Beetle, Black Cat, Black Panther, Black Widow, Doctor Octopus, Doctor Octopus Ultimate, Howard The Duck, Phoenix, Rhino, Rocket Raccoon, Sabretooth, Spider-Man, Spider-Man F.F., Spider Woman, Squirrel Girl, Toad, Viper, Vulture, Wasp, Wolverine, and Wolverine (Cowl) to get the Zoo Believer.

Successfully complete one of the following tasks to get a trophy:

Have you ever tried Shawarma? (Platinum): Collect every trophy.

Sand Central Station (Bronze): Complete Level 1 – Sand Central Station.

Times Square Off (Bronze): Complete Level 2 – Times Square Off.

Exploratory Laboratory (Bronze): Complete Level 3 – Exploratory Laboratory.

Rock up at the Lock up (Bronze): Complete Level 4 – Rock up at the Lock up.

Rebooted, Resuited (Bronze): Complete Level 5 – Rebooted, Resuited.

Red Head Detention (Bronze): Complete Level 6 – Red Head Detention.

Bifrosty Reception (Bronze): Complete Level 7 – Bifrosty Reception.

Juggernauts and Crosses (Bronze): Complete Level 8 – Juggernauts and Crosses.

Doctor in the House (Bronze): Complete Level 9 – Doctor in the House.

That Sinking Feeling (Bronze): Complete Level 10 – That Sinking Feeling.

Taking Liberties (Bronze): Complete Level 11 – Taking Liberties.

Rapturous Rise (Bronze): Complete Level 12 – Rapturous Rise.

Magnetic Personality (Bronze): Complete Level 13 – Magnetic Personality.

A Doom with a View (Bronze): Complete Level 14 – A Doom with a View.

The Good, the Bad and the Hungry (Bronze): Complete Level 15 – The Good, the Bad and the Hungry.

Falling… with Style (Bronze): Complete first Helicarrier skydive.

Dont I Know You? (Bronze): Team up Captain America with Human Torch (Co-op).

Stan-tastic (Silver): Rescue Stan Lee from every peril (Single Player).

Road Rage (Bronze): Destroy 100 vehicles in the Manhattan hub.

Its Clobberin Time! (Bronze): Defeat 100 enemies as the Thing.

Im Always Angry! (Silver): Transform into the Hulk 50 times.

Billionaire Philanthropist (Gold): Collect 1,000,000,000 studs (Single Player).

This Is fantastic! (Bronze): First time turning Mister Fantastic into a teapot.

You Win a No-Prize! (Gold): Complete game 100% (Single Player).

Avengers Assembled (Silver): Collect all Avengers characters in the game (Single Player).

Sinister Six (Bronze): Collect Doc Ock, Sandman, Mysterio, Kraven the Hunter, Electro and Vulture (Single Player).

To Me, My X-Men (Bronze): Collect all traditionally heroic mutants (Single Player).

Brotherhood (Bronze): Collect all traditionally evil mutants (Single Player).

I Am Iron Man (Bronze): Collect all Iron Man armors (Single Player).

Stans Soapbox (Bronze): Turn into Stan Hulk.

Post-Credit Party (Silver): Complete House Party Protocol.

The Toast of Croydon (Bronze): Create a character called Trevor in the character customizer.

Puny God (Bronze): Perform Hulks special move on Loki.

Welcome to Level 7 (Bronze): Play as Agent Coulson.

Its Me Time! (Bronze): Read a comic in Deadpools room on the Helicarrier.

Bad Luck? (Bronze): Unlock Black Cat (Single Player).

Zoo Believer (Bronze): Unlock all animal-themed characters (Single Player).

Guardians of the Galaxy (Bronze): Unlock all the Guardians of the Galaxy (Single Player).

Fastball Special (Bronze): Perform a special throwing move as Colossus on Wolverine.

Menace of Magneto (Bronze): Drive to the Baxter Building as Magneto in the Magneto Mobile.

Alter Ego (Bronze): Perform all big LEGO figure transformations.

Cant Hurt Me Bub (Bronze): Regenerate as Wolverine.

Cosplay (Bronze): Create a custom character.

Ultimate True Believer (Gold): Unlock all True Believers (Single Player).

Really? (Bronze): Collect Howard the Duck (Single Player).

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VAG COM 1110 VAG 1110 VCDSDiagnostic Tool forW AUDI

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VAG COM 11.10 VAG 11.10 VCDS 11.10 Diagnostic Tool for VW AUDI

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It works with all VAG vehicles including VW/Audi/Seat and Skoda from 1994 to 2011, and works with Windows 2000, XP, Vista, and both 32-bit and 64-bit).

It is fully compatible with all VW, Audi, Seat and Skoda models through the current model year, including models using a direct connection for diagnostics.

It has a database of more than 14000 fault-codes and measuring-block texts.

It use the new 7-Digit PIN/SKC codes to match new keys in all immobilizer equipped VW/Audi/Seat/Skoda models.

It allows you to view, log, and graph 3 groups of Measuring Blocks at once.

It access all control modules which require proprietary VAG modes running the KWP-2000 protocols (2001+ Teves Mk. 60 ABS, numerous 2002+ modules), KWP6000 and/or KWP7000 (UDS). It display critical timing information on TDI engines in graphic form.

VAG COM 11.10 adds these additional improvements:

* Re-factored DTC routines which interpret DTC data. Separated routines by protocol; Enhanced interpretation of status byte for DTCs in UDS modules.

* Added check-box to disable the Aggressive fault reading mode we have always used under UDS because it was frustrating to some dealer techs that VCDS showed more DTCs than the factory tool.

* Added an area to display additional info for Basic Settings. The data to be displayed in this area comes from the Label files and it may take some time before tips are included for most Basic Settings groups.

* Added data types 0B, 0D, 0F to Generic OBD-II Mode 9. Fixed some bugs in the display of certain high-numbered, rarely used PIDs.

* Enhanced ROD (ODX) Data. Includes coverage for additional new control modules.

* Revised and expanded Label Files. More than 75 new or revised files since the last dataset.

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